1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Jatropha L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America, Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, Comoros, Arabian Peninsula, India, Sri Lanka.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or rarely dioecious trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs with the stems arising from a thick perennial rootstock
    Indumentum
    Indumentum simple, sometimes glandular
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, crowded and fasciculate or laxly arranged, simple, generally palmatilobed, less commonly pinnatilobed or entire, petiolate or sessile, stipulate, the stipules usually multifid with setaceous segments, sometimes laciniate, sometimes rigid and spiny, and branched or not
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, often corymbiform, dichotomously cymose, androgynous, protogynous, with a solitary ♀ flower terminating each major axis, lateral cymules ♂; bracts usually entire, sometimes glandular-fimbriate
    Flowers
    Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), often ± connate at the base, imbricate; petals 5, free or ± coherent and then simulating a gamopetalous corolla, imbricate or contorted, rarely 0, in which case the calyx petaloid; disc entire or composed of 5 free glands; stamens 6–10, rarely more, commonly arranged in 2 distinct whorls (commonly 5 + 3) with those of the outer whorl opposite the petals, filaments partially fused into a column, anthers longitudinally dehiscent, staminodes (when present) filiform; pistillode 0 Female flowers: sepals and petals ± as in the ♂ flowers; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular, 5-lobed or composed of free glands; ovary (1–)2–3(–5)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles connate at the base, spreading, entire or shortly bifid
    Male
    Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), often ± connate at the base, imbricate; petals 5, free or ± coherent and then simulating a gamopetalous corolla, imbricate or contorted, rarely 0, in which case the calyx petaloid; disc entire or composed of 5 free glands; stamens 6–10, rarely more, commonly arranged in 2 distinct whorls (commonly 5 + 3) with those of the outer whorl opposite the petals, filaments partially fused into a column, anthers longitudinally dehiscent, staminodes (when present) filiform; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers: sepals and petals ± as in the ♂ flowers; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular, 5-lobed or composed of free glands; ovary (1–)2–3(–5)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles connate at the base, spreading, entire or shortly bifid
    Fruits
    Fruit usually schizocarpic, ovoid or subglobose, dehiscing septicidally or loculicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, rarely subdrupaceous and ± indehiscent; endocarp crustaceous or indurated
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid or oblong, carunculate, the caruncle often much-divided, testa crustaceous, albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Monoecious, rarely dioecious, trees shrubs subshrubs or herbs with the stems arising from a thick perennial rootstock.
    Indumentum
    Indumentum simple and/or glandular.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, stipulate, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire, lobed or partitely divided, penninerved or palminerved.
    Stipules
    Stipules subulate, bifid or multifid, usually glandular.
    Petiole
    Petioles usually eglandular.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or subterminal, often corymbiform, cymose, androgynous, protogynous, a solitary female flower terminating each major axis, lateral cymules male; bracts entire or glandular-stipitate.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: calyx usually 5-lobed, lobes imbricate; petals 5, free or sometimes laterally coherent, imbricate or contorted; disk usually of 5 free glands; stamens 8 (Flora Zambesiaca area), in 2 fused whorls (5 + 3), outer whorl opposite the petals, anthers dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers: calyx and petals more or less as in the male flowers; disk annular, 5-lobed, or sometimes of 5 free glands; staminodes (when present) filiform; ovary usually 3-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles usually united at the base, erect or spreading, stigmas 3, usually bifid and somewhat tumid.
    Fruits
    Fruit shallowly 3-lobed, dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, less often loculicidally into 3 valves, sometimes subdrupaceous, indehiscent; endocarp crustaceous or slightly woody; columella persistent.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually shiny, carunculate, the caruncle usually bifid, fimbriate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile North, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bermuda, Borneo, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., South China Sea, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Jatropha L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Eiten, G. [10471], Brazil K001210054
    Passos, L. [388], Brazil K001210052
    Tschá, M.C. [749], Brazil K001210051
    Rocha, R. [1418], Brazil K001210053

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1006 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Dehgan, B. (2012). Flora Neotropica, Monograph 110: 1-273.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 775
    • Pax in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 1: 21 (1910).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 437 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 1006 (1753), pro parte
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Dehgan & Webster, Univ. Cal. Publ., Bot. 74: 1–73, 33 pls. (1979)
    • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 775 (1912)
    • Pax in E.P. IV. 147(1): 21 (1910)
    • G.P. 3(1): 290 (1880)
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1076 (1866)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 437 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1006 (1753), pro parte,

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/