1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Galium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.


    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes slightly shrubby at the base, with erect, decumbent or ± climbing 4-angled stems, glabrous to hispid and sometimes with small prickles
    Leaves in whorls of 3–10–many; blades setaceous to ovate, sometimes with prickly margins; stipules foliar and counted with the leaves
    Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, usually very small, arranged in a basically thyrsoid inflorescence, but mostly in exinvolucrate ebracteate axillary or terminal cymes or rarely solitary; pedicel articulated with the calyx
    Calyx-tube ovoid or globose; limb obsolete, but usually with a ring of sessile colleters
    Corolla usually white, yellow or reddish, rotate; lobes (3–)4(–5)
    Stamens (3–)4; filaments short, inserted in the very short tube
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule, affixed to the septum, amphitropous; styles 2, short, sometimes connate below; stigmas capitate
    Disc annular
    Fruit 2-lobed, each lobe with 1 seed, leathery and ± dry or somewhat to quite distinctly fleshy, smooth or tuberculate, glabrous, hairy or with hooked bristles
    Seeds with membranous testa adhering to the pericarp, dorsally convex, ventrally excavated; albumen horny.

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

    Perennial herbs or annuals.
    Stems erect, creeping or climbing, often distinctly 4-angled, glabrous, hairy or with recurved prickles.
    Leaves in whorls of 4–10, (sub)sessile, blades linear, lanceolate to (ob)ovate, mostly with a prominent midvein (1-nerved).
    Flowers in axillary and/or terminal many-to few-flowered cymes, hermaphrodite (and protandrous), rarely unisexual, 4-merous.
    Calyx lobes obsolete.
    Corolla rotate or (sub) campanulate, greenish (-yellow), creamy white to bright yellow, lobes ovate to triangular, acute to acuminate.
    Anthers exserted.
    Ovary bilocular, one ovule in each chamber, crowned by an often 2-lobed disk; style branches 2, joined below; stigmas capitate.
    Fruit dry (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), glabrous or variously hairy, dehiscing into 2 (sub) globose or reniform mericarps, each with a single seed, round on dorsal side, ± excavated on ventral side; one mericarp occasionally aborted.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, France, Free State, Føroyar, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii, Mauritius, Nigeria, Ogasawara-shoto, Réunion, Svalbard, Tristan da Cunha

    Galium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hunt, D.R. [6377], Brazil K001204871
    Martinelli, G. [10897], Brazil K001204883
    Irwin, H.S. [19716], Brazil K001204874
    Heringer, E.P. [371], Brazil K001204878
    Heringer, E.P. [18342], Brazil K001204879
    Heringer, E.P. [18342], Brazil K001204880
    Heringer, E.P. [14303], Brazil K001204881
    Heringer, E.P. [16026], Brazil K001204882
    Eiten, G. [6602], Brazil K001204870
    Eiten, G. [6617], Brazil K001204884
    Eiten, G. [7171], Brazil K001204885
    Lourteig, A. [2175], Brazil K001204872
    Lourteig, A. [2131], Brazil K001204873
    Kirkbride, J.H. Jr. [5524], Brazil K001204869
    Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], Iran K001132358
    Gardner [438], Brazil K001204868
    Camerick, A.M. [158], Brazil K001204876
    Fontana, A.P. [4803], Brazil K001204877
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132357
    Burchell [3800], Brazil K001204875

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 105 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Thompson, I.R. (2009). A revision of Asperula and Galium (Rubieae: Rubiaceae) in Australia Muelleria 27: 36-112.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 3: 244.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 46 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.1: 105 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 46 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 105 (1753)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0