1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Vigna Savi

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Australasia, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Climbing, prostrate or erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely small shrubs, mostly from woody or tuberous rootstocks
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately, more rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate or 1-foliolate; stipules truncate, bilobed or spurred at the base or sometimes quite peltate; stipels ± persistent, rarely absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or terminal, falsely racemose or flowers in dense 1-many-flowered subumbellate clusters or fasciculate; rhachis usually thickened and glandular at the point of insertion of the pedicels; bracts and bracteoles ± deciduous
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed,the middle lobe usually the longest; upper lip of 2 lobes completely or partly united
    Corolla
    Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or purple; standard with inflexed auricles and 2–4 appendages or sometimes a single structure on the internal face, less often without appendages; keel truncate, obtuse or conspicuously beaked, sometimes the beak incurved through up to 360° (in some species the keel is twisted and untidy-looking and in others there is a distinct conical pocket on the left-hand petal)
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; 5 shorter filaments (including the vexillary one) sometimes (in subgen. Haydonia) with a pair of joined glands below each anther; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–many-ovuled; style with tenuous lower part obsolete to quite long, filiform or flattened, upper part thickened and cartilaginous, straight or curved, upper portion barbate or hirsute on the internal face, sometimes produced beyond the stigma to form a short to long subulate or rarely flattened or capitate beak; stigma completely lateral, oblique or rarely ± terminal
    Fruits
    Pods linear or linear-oblong, cylindrical or flattened, straight or ± curved, usually ± septate
    Seeds
    Seeds mostly reniform or quadrate; hilum small or elongate; aril obsolete to well developed, usually eccentric, often 3-pronged.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    The New World species of Vigna may be significantly reduced with the removal of subgenus Sigmoidotropis (c. 17 spp., including V. caracalla (L.) Verdc., illustrated above) which is polyphyletic with respect to the rest of Vigna (Delgado Salinas et al., 1993)
    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical woodland, wooded grassland and grassland, often in well drained sites with low fertility
    Distribution
    Palaeotropics and subtropics (c. 80-85 spp., mostly in Africa [c. 55-60 spp.; 4 spp. endemic to Madagascar] and SE Asia [c. 21 spp.]), c. 22 spp. in Neotropics and subtropics (but see taxonomic notes)
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Climbing, twining, prostrate or erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely small shrubs, mostly from woody or tuberous rootstocks, without hooked hairs (as in Phaseolus).
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately, more rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate, 1-foliolate or simple; leaflets entire, venation usually reticulate, rarely with secondary nerves parallel (V. multinervis) or tertiary nerves parallel; stipules usually bilobed or spurred at the base, sometimes peltate, rarely truncate; stipels persistent, rarely absent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, falsely racemose or flowers in dense 1–many-flowered subumbellate clusters or fasciculate; rhachis thickened and glandular at the point of insertion of the pedicels, flowers paired at each node; bracts and bracteoles deciduous, usually similar in shape and nervation; pedicel shorter than or as long as the calyx, extending or not as the pod matures.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed, the middle lobe usually the longest; upper lip of 2 lobes completely or partly united.
    Corolla
    Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or purple inside (internal face of standard, external face of wings), greenish outside (external face of standard), all petals of subequal length; standard glabrous (except in V. heterophylla), emarginate, usually slightly wider than long and symmetrical, with inflexed auricles and appendages on the internal face, less often without appendages; appendages of the standard are based on a U-shaped pattern with one on each half of the standard, but the pattern is rarely complete; it can be reduced to the central part of the U with the appendages appearing parallel and very close together (central position), or sometimes joined and appearing V- or X-shaped (V.luteola or V. monophylla for example); it can be reduced to the lateral part of the U with the appendages appearing parallel but spaced apart (lateral position) (as in V. unguiculata); it can be reduced to the basal part of the U with the appendages appearing perpendicular to the standard axis (V. comosa); keel whitish except for the beak (if there is a beak), usually fused on the upper side, truncate, obtuse or conspicuously beaked, sometimes the beak incurved through up to 180° (V. radiata), sometimes with a distinct conical pocket on the left-hand petal (V. vexillata for example).
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; 5 shorter filaments (including the vexillary one) sometimes with a pair of joined glands below each anther (in subgenus Haydonia); anthers uniform.
    Pollen
    Pollen triporate, exine coarsely reticulate (except in subgenus Haydonia).
    Pistil
    Ovary 1–many-ovuled; style with tenuous lower part obsolete to quite long, filiform or flattened, upper part thickened and cartilaginous, straight or curved, upper portion barbate or hirsute on the internal face, produced beyond the stigma to form a short to long subulate beak (except in subgenus Haydonia); stigma completely lateral or oblique.
    Fruits
    Pods linear or linear-oblong, usually terete, rarely flattened (V. macrorhyncha), with sutures not raised (except V. macrorhyncha), straight or curved, not septate (seeds are separated by a spongy tissue, not as woody as in Dysolobium and Pachyrhizus); style caducous.
    Seeds
    Seeds mostly reniform or quadrate, thickness usually slightly less than width, usually cream-coloured, cream-coloured in combination with grey, mottled and speckled patterns, or black; hilum small or elongate; aril obsolete to well developed, usually excentric, often 3-pronged.
    Cytology
    Chromosome count usually 2n=22, rarely 2n=20.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herb with short creeping stems
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules spurred, striate; stipels small, persistent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered; peduncle bending downwards after flowering so that the fruits develop underground
    Flowers
    Fertile flowers small, without petals, ± 2 mm. long; functionally male flowers possessing petals
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip of 3 short lobes; upper pair of lobes joined to form a bifid lip
    Corolla
    Standard auriculate, with 2 obscure appendages, glabrous
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers uniform
    Ovary
    Ovary 1–3-ovuled
    Fruits
    Pods irregularly oblong-obovoid, beaked with a recurved style-base
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid or ellipsoid, slightly keeled; hilum elliptic, placed towards one end; aril almost obsolete, thin, white.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Many species are major pulse, vegetable, fodder and green manure crops, e.g., V. angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi (azuki or adzuki bean) ; V. mungo (L.) Hepper (urd bean, black gram) ; V. radiata (L.) R.Wilczek (mung bean, green gram) ; V. umbellata (Thunb.) Owhi & H.Ohashi (rice bean) ; V. aconitifolia (Jacq.) Maréchal (moth bean) ; V. unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea, yard long bean) and V. subterranea (L.) Verdc. (bambara groundnut, bambara bean)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Socotra

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Arkansas, Bermuda, Christmas I., Hawaii, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Libya, Mississippi, North Caucasus, Oman, Primorye, Qinghai, Sakhalin, South European Russi, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang

    Vigna Savi appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2010 Mackinder, B. [224], Cameroon K000108259
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4570], Cameroon K000338570
    Jan 19, 1993 Broom, Dr. [35], Australia K000279326
    Jan 1, 1983 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8559], Cameroon K000087363
    Hepper, F.N. [2112], Cameroon K000087366
    Maitland, T.D. [906], Cameroon K000087372
    Ollerton, J. [188], Guyana 77549.000
    Burchell, W.J. [1537], Brazil K000931231
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000279293
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000279300
    Mitchell, T.L. [s.n.], Australia K000279302
    Bidwill [s.n.], Australia K000279303
    Brunt, M.A. [562], Cameroon K000087451

    First published in Nuovo Giorn. Lett., ser. 3, 8: 113 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 194.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Taxon 27: 221 (1978).
    • in Pisa Nuov. Giorn. Lett. 8: 113 (1824) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Pisa Nuov. Giorn. Lett. 8: 113 (1824)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0