1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Phaseolus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Tanzania, Southern America and Northern America..

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    Placed in subtribe Phaseolinae, allied to Ramirezella (q.v.) and Oxyrhynchus (q.v.) in Thulin et al. (2004)
    Habit
    Climbing herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry to wet lowland and montane forest, thicket, scrub and wooded grassland, from humid to desert conditions
    Distribution
    tropical, subtropical and warm temperate N, C and S America (from C USA to Argentina); most concentrated in Mexico and C America and with c. 3 spp. in S America endemic to the N and C Andes and Galapagos (Delgado Salinas, pers. comm.)
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, erect, prostrate or climbing
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate; stipules persistent, not prolonged below the point of insertion, striate; stipels present
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose, the flowers in fascicles along the rhachis which is swollen at the insertion of the pedicels; bracts and bracteoles present, deciduous or ± persistent
    Flowers
    Flowers usually fairly small, yellow, white, scarlet or purple
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; upper lip emarginate, bifid; lower lip 3-lobed
    Corolla
    Standard rounded, auriculate, often considerably reflexed, with 2 appendages or with only slight appendages at the side of the claw and a transverse constriction above or with none; wings often following the spiral of the keel, often broadened and cucullate at the apex; keel often narrow, elongated, the apex beaked and forming a spiral of 1–5 complete turns
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; free part of other filaments usually long; anthers subuniform or 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5 basifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary oblong to linear, 2–many-ovuled; style tenuous below, filiform and flexible, the apical part cartilaginous and thickened, curved through at least 360°, glabrous or hairy inside towards the summit; stigma oblique on the inner side of the style-apex or sometimes smaller and terminal or subterminal, not penicillate
    Fruits
    Pods linear or oblong, sometimes falcate, compressed or subcylindrical, sometimes beaked, filled between the seeds
    Seeds
    Seeds 3 to many, oblong or reniform; hilum oblong, short, ± central, without appendages or with them somewhat developed.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs, erect, prostrate or climbing.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate; stipules persistent, not prolonged below the point of insertion, striate; stipels present.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose, the flowers in fascicles along the rhachis which is swollen at the insertion of the pedicels; bracts and bracteoles present, deciduous or ± persistent.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually fairly small, yellow, white, scarlet or purple.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; upper lip emarginate, bifid; lower lip 3-lobed.
    Corolla
    Standard rounded, auriculate, often considerably reflexed, with 2 appendages or with only slight appendages at the side of the claw and a transverse constriction above or with none; wings often following the spiral of the keel, often broadened and cucullate at the apex; keel often narrow, elongated, the apex beaked and forming a spiral of 1–5 complete turns.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; free part of other filaments usually long; anthers subuniform or 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5 basifixed.
    Pistil
    Ovary oblong to linear, 2–many-ovuled; style tenuous below, filiform and flexible, the apical part cartilaginous and thickened, curved through at least 360°, glabrous or hairy inside towards the summit; stigma oblique on the inner side of the style apex or sometimes smaller and terminal or subterminal, not penicillate.
    Fruits
    Pods linear or oblong, sometimes falcate, compressed or subcylindrical, sometimes beaked, filled between the seeds.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3–many, oblong or reniform; hilum oblong, short, ± central, without appendages or with them somewhat developed.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used for human food as major pulse and vegetable crops; P. acutifolius A.Gray (tepary bean) , P. coccineus L. (scarlet runner bean) , P. lunatus L. (lima bean) , P. vulgaris L. (common or kidney bean) and the year bean, P. dumosus Macfad. (= P. polyanthus Greenm.) are cultivated; also used for fodder, green manure and as ornamentals

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    California

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Honduras, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Panamá, Peru, South Carolina, Suriname, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Venezuela, Virginia

    Introduced into:

    Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bahamas, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, India, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Irkutsk, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Leeward Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Windward Is., Yakutskiya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Phaseolus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 723 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 191.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 507–526 (1970).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 323 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 723 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Verdc. in K.B. 24: 507–526 (1970)
    • in Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 323 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 723 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0