1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Polystachya Hook.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:2. 1998

    Habit
    Epiphytic, occasionally lithophytic or terrestrial perennial herbs.
    Stem
    Stems usually forming pseudobulbs, clustered or less commonly spaced out on a creeping rhizome, sometimes branched or superposed (emerging from nodes above the base of the previous pseudobulb), 1- to several-noded, with 1 to several leaves.
    Leaves
    Leaves linear, lanceolate, oblanceolate or elliptic, varying in texture.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence (comprising peduncle, rhachis and flowers) 1- to many-flowered, simple or branching. Floral bracts erect to reflexed, setiform, lanceolate, ovate or obovate, acute or acuminate to mucronate.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually non-resupinate, very small or medium-sized, rarely large, usually fragrant, often pubescent, green, yellow, white, pink, mauve or orange, rarely red.
    Calyx
    Dorsal sepal lanceolate to ovate; lateral sepals ± oblique, joined to the column-foot to form a mentum.
    Corolla
    Petals linear to obovate.
    Labellum
    Lip usually 3-lobed but sometimes entire, with or without a basal callus, glabrous, pubescent or farinose, often recurved, sometimes fleshy and difficult to flatten without breaking.
    Column
    Column porrect, usually short and stout with a ± elongate foot; pollinia 2, ovoid; stipe 1, square or sub-triangular to oblong or linear; viscidium small to large, round or ellipsoid; rostellum usually obscure, bifid in front, rarely slightly elongated or beak-like.
    [FTEA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Small, medium-sized or rarely large epiphytic or less commonly lithophytic or terrestrial herbs
    Stem
    Stems often pseudobulbous, caespitose or less commonly spaced on a creeping rhizome, sometimes branched or superposed, 1–several-noded, 1–several-leaved
    Leaves
    Leaves suberect to spreading, thin-textured, coriaceous or rarely fleshy, often distichous, linear or lanceolate to oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, emarginate, acute, obtuse or acuminate at the apex
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, erect to pendulous, 1–many-flowered, simple or branching; branches sometimes secund; bracts suberect to reflexed, setose or lanceolate to ovate or obovate, acute or acuminate to mucronate
    Flowers
    Flowers minute to fairly large, mostly with lip uppermost, non-resupinate, mostly rather drably coloured, ± fragrant, often pubescent
    Calyx
    Dorsal sepal mostly porrect, lanceolate to ovate-elliptic; lateral sepals ± oblique, attached to the column-foot to form a more or less prominent mentum
    Corolla
    Petals linear to obovate
    Labellum
    Lip entire to 3-lobed, with or without a basal callus, glabrous, pubescent or farinose, often recurved and difficult to flatten
    Column
    Column porrect, mostly short and stout, with a ± elongate foot; pollinia 2, ovoid; stipe 1, square or subtriangular to oblong or linear; viscidium small to large, circular or elliptic; rostellum mostly obscure, bifid in front, rarely slightly elongate and beak-like.
    [FTEA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Terrestrial or lithophytic herb with clustered leafy stems
    Leaves
    Leaves grass-like, articulated below to a sheathing base
    Flowers
    Flowers numerous in dense terminal racemes, showy, with a strong sweet scent
    Calyx
    Sepals subequal, ± spreading, the laterals slightly united at the base and slightly adnate to the base of the lip
    Corolla
    Petals free, similar to the sepals
    Labellum
    Lip somewhat spreading, sessile at the base of the column and ± adnate and parallel to it, entire, fleshy, devoid of keel or crests, but the basal and central part distinctly to slightly hairy
    Column
    Column short and thick, rounded at the back, excavated in front, with sparse short bristles on the angular edges; column-foot obscure, forming an obscure mentum with the lateral sepals; anther galeate, subhemispherical, obtusely umbonate at the apex, the basal margins retuse; pollinia attached to a semicircular viscidium, in 2 pairs of 2, each consisting of a smaller discoid one fitting against a larger concavo-convex one, separated by thin folds of tissue when young which later roll up forming ridges inside the anther- cap.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii

    Polystachya Hook. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 17, 2010 Harris, T. [657], Mozambique K000718178
    Aug 10, 2006 74465.000
    May 1, 1994 Cable, S. [78], Cameroon K000107000
    Jan 1, 1988 Thomas, D.W. [7005], Cameroon K000106731
    Oct 1, 1972 Bauer, P.J. [81], Cameroon K000106653
    Tanzania 21272.000
    21273.000
    21274.000
    24672.000
    26122.000
    Zambia 27461.054
    Zimbabwe 31039.000
    Zimbabwe 31180.000
    Zimbabwe 31415.000
    Zambia 34010.000
    Congo, DRC 58669.000
    Madagascar 59391.000
    Nigeria 6048.000
    6049.000
    Madagascar 61042.000
    Zimbabwe 6148.000
    6150.000
    Madagascar 63492.000
    9217.000
    South Africa 9218.000
    9220.000
    9221.000
    Madagascar 72720.000
    Holmes, W.D. [355, 356, 361, 363 or 367], Zambia 75887.000
    Holmes, W.D. [355, 356, 361, 363 or 367], Zambia 75889.000
    Holmes, W.D. [355, 356, 361, 363 or 367], Zambia 75897.000
    Holmes, W.D. [355, 356, 361, 363 or 367], Zambia 75898.000
    Holmes, W.D. [355, 356, 361' 363 or 367], Zambia 75901.000
    Holmes, W.D. [355, 356, 361, 363 or 367], Zambia 75903.000
    Taylor, P. [16383], Ecuador 41640.000
    Drummond [2615A], Tanzania 29637.000
    Wild, H. [GH.35738], Zimbabwe 30942.000
    Drummond, R.B. [1668], Tanzania 9222.000
    Eggeling, W.J. [5993], Uganda 29417.000
    Moreau [126], Tanzania 31179.000
    Moreau [604], Tanzania 32835.000
    Moreau [849] 32845.000
    Moreau, R.E. [167], Tanzania 30261.000
    Moreau, R.E. [872], Tanzania 30425.000
    Moreau, R.E. [321], Tanzania 31247.000
    Callens, H. [1168] 17897.000
    Callens, H. [815] 9223.000
    Harley, W.J. [1773a], Liberia 9216.000
    Richards, H.M. [26708], Tanzania 37429.000
    Williamson, G. [13a], Zambia 11887.017
    Williamson, G. [203], Zambia 17326.006
    Williamson, G. [131], Zambia 17326.007
    Williamson, G. [321], Zambia 1800.032
    Williamson, G. [2], Zambia 33179.000
    Williamson, G. [321], Zambia 33723.000
    Williamson, G. [776], Zambia 33881.000
    Williamson, G. [144], Malawi 33985.000
    Williamson, G. [125], Zambia 34004.000
    Williamson, G. [778], Zambia 39724.000
    Mason, L.M. [1014], Madagascar 29770.000
    Bowden, J.K. [91], Nigeria 34930.000
    la Croix, I. [1154], Congo 57107.000
    la Croix, I. [1145], Congo 61631.000
    la Croix, I. [1145], Congo 61634.000
    Leach, L.C. [10958] 31204.000
    Williamson, G. [311], Zambia 27461.004
    Williamson, G. [421], Zambia 32589.000
    Williamson, G. [1243], Zambia 32611.000
    Williamson, G. [1514], Zambia 32881.000
    Williamson, G. [778], Zambia 33877.000
    Morze, G. [91], Zambia 31733.000
    Morze, G., Zambia 31736.000
    Morze, G. [125], Zambia 31737.000
    Morze, G. [103A], Zambia 31742.000
    Morze, G. [104a], Zambia 31745.000
    Morze, G. [102], Zambia 31746.000
    Morze, G. [168], Zambia 31755.000
    Morze, G. [121], Zambia 31758.000
    Morze, G. [71], Zambia 31761.000
    Morze, G. [167], Zambia 31762.000
    Morze, G. [127c], Zambia 31770.000
    Morze, G. [127a], Zambia 31771.000
    Morze, G. [127b], Zambia 31783.000
    Morze, G. [130], Zambia 31794.000
    Du Puy, B. [MB701], Madagascar 56377.000
    Du Puy, B. [MB153], Madagascar 57503.000
    Du Puy, B. [MB689], Madagascar 72249.000
    Du Puy, B. [MB688], Madagascar 72252.000
    Cheek, M. [7877], Cameroon 61666.000
    Cheek, M. [5481], Cameroon 61672.000
    Cheek, M. [9527], Cameroon 61737.000
    Cheek, M. [8340], Cameroon 61933.000
    Cheek, M. [8343], Cameroon 61934.000
    Holmes [8], Zambia 77399.000
    Spurrier, M. [1065], Tanzania 61642.000
    Schaijes, M. [2255], Congo, DRC 48942.000
    la Croix, I [1149], Congo 61655.000
    la Croix, I. [1123], Congo 71546.000
    la Croix, I. [1204], Tanzania 71547.000
    Salazar Chavez, G.A. [6321] 74321.000
    Hermans, J. [13/16], Madagascar 72440.000
    Cable, S. [2634], Cameroon 61670.000
    Cable, S. [3862], Cameroon 61690.000
    Cable, S. [2778], Cameroon 61705.000
    Cable, S. [2422], Cameroon 61716.000
    Cable, S. [2421], Cameroon 61734.000
    Cable, S. [3544], Cameroon 63776.000
    Cable, S. [2423], Cameroon 63843.000
    Etuge, M. [2006], Cameroon 63801.000
    Zapfack, L. [727], Cameroon 61664.000
    Zapfack, L. [963], Cameroon 61673.000
    Zapfack, L. [887], Cameroon 76153.000
    Mackinder, B.A. [185], Cameroon 61702.000
    Ryan, P. [288], Cameroon 63783.000
    Ryan, P. [376], Cameroon 63797.000
    Ryan, P. [272], Cameroon 63829.000
    Ryan, P. [258], Cameroon 63845.000
    31802.000
    Biteau, P. [F iv], Gabon 71594.000
    Biteau, P. [R vi], Gabon 71595.000
    Biteau, P. [F ii], Gabon 71596.000
    Biteau, P. [I i], Gabon 71598.000
    Biteau, P. [T iv], Gabon 71602.000
    Biteau, P. [Q viii], Gabon 71603.000
    Biteau, P. [Z ii], Gabon 71604.000
    Biteau, P. [F iii], Gabon 71605.000
    Biteau, P. [G i], Gabon 71606.000
    Biteau, P. [A ii], Gabon 71611.000
    Pollard, B.J. [1051], Cameroon 65005.000
    Alkema [518] 75899.000
    de Wilde, J. J. F. E., de Wilde, [536], Gabon 75930.000
    Brinklow, R.K. [33], Cameroon 77348.000

    First published in Exot. Fl. 2: t. 103 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Chase, M.W., Cameron, K.M., Freudenstein, J.V., Pridgeon, A.M., Salazar, G., van den Berg, C. & Schuiteman, A. (2015). An updated classification of Orchidaceae Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 117: 151-174.
    • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2014). Genera Orchidacearum 6: 1-544. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Mytnik-Ejsmont, J. (2011). A monograph of the subtribe Polystachyinae Schltr. (Orchidaceae): 1-400. Fundacja Rozwoju Uniwersytetu Gdanskiego.
    • Mytnik-Ejsmont, J. & Baranow, P. (2010). Taxonomic study of Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) from Asia Plant Systematics and Evolution 290: 57-63.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 7: 103 Nom. cons.
    • Exot. Fl. 2: t. 103 (1824)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Exot. Fl. 2: t. 103 (1824), nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Exot. Fl. 2, t. 103 (1824), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0