1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Coffea L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical Asia to Queensland.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, glabrous; domatia usually present, the cavity completely or partially defined, glabrous or pubescent; stipules very shortly united above the axils, obtuse to aristate, usually with colleters within
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, (4–)5–8(–12)-merous, borne with leaves or precociously, 1–many per axil or rarely terminal on spurs; inflorescence-stalks (including pedicel) individual or grouped on common peduncle, glabrous or pubescent (but this character is often obscured by resinous exudate); bracteoles 1–4, usually cupular, stipule-like with rudimentary lobes or sometimes bearing 2 linear or subfoliaceous lobes; occasionally additional free, scale-like bracteoles are borne towards apex of inflorescence-stalks
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube campanulate to turbinate; limb usually ± obsolete and shorter than the disc, occasionally equalling or rarely exceeding the disc, truncate to dentate, usually beset with colleters
    Corolla
    Corolla white or occasionally pink, glabrous; tube cylindrical and widened at throat or somewhat funnel-shaped, shorter than, subequal to or, occasionally, a little longer than the lobes; lobes contorted in bud, spreading
    Stamens
    Stamens attached at mouth of corolla-tube, exserted, erect; filaments ± 1/3 the length of the anther; anthers linear, attached dorsally up to 1/3 from the base
    Disc
    Disc annular
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary, subpeltately attached to the middle of the septum; style slender, glabrous, exceeding the corolla-tube; stigma exserted, with 2 usually divergent arms
    Fruits
    Fruit a ± ellipsoidal drupe, usually fleshy, containing (1–)2, ± coriaceous, 1-seeded pyrenes
    Seeds
    Seed oblong-ellipsoid, grooved on inner face; testa thin with compressed cellular sculpturing that superficially appears striated, shiny (referred to as silver-skin by coffee growers); endosperm pale in colour, horny, asymmetrically folded from the groove; embryo erect, somewhat curved.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

    Disc
    Disk annular.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules solitary, subpeltately attached to the middle of the septum; style slender, glabrous, exceeding the corolla tube; stigma exserted with 2 usually divergent arms*.
    Fruits
    Fruit a ± ellipsoidal drupe, usually containing (1)2 ± coriaceous, 1-seeded pyrenes.
    Seeds
    Seed oblong-ellipsoid, grooved on inner face; testa thin with compressed cellular sculpturing that superficially appears striated, shiny (referred to as “silver- skin” by coffee growers); endosperm pale in colour, horny, asymmetrically folded from the groove; embryo erect, somewhat curved.
    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, glabrous; domatia usually present, the cavity completely or partially defined, glabrous or pubescent; stipules very shortly united above the axils, obtuse or aristate, usually with colleters within.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, (4)5–8(12)-merous, borne with leaves or precociously (or terminal on spurs, in subgen. Baracoffea, not in the Flora Zambesiaca area); inflorescence units 1 or 2–4 per leaf axil; inflorescence stalks (including pedicel) individual or grouped on a common peduncle, glabrous or pubescent (but this character is often obscured by sticky exudate); cupular bracts/bracteoles (cupules*) in a series of 1–3(4), each with 2 stipule-derived (stipular lobes) and 2 leaf- derived (foliar lobes) (TAB. 92/B6) and with colleters within; stipular lobes usually stipule-like; foliar lobes rudimentary, linear or subfoliaceous; occasionally a bracteolar cupule present at base of pedicel, variously divided sometimes ± to the base; scale-like bractlets borne along true pedicel up to base of calyx tube or absent, often with colleters partly protruding.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube campanulate to turbinate; limb usually ± obsolete and shorter than the disk, occasionally equalling or rarely exceeding the disk, truncate to dentate, usually beset with colleters.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or occasionally pink, glabrous; tube cylindrical and widened at throat or somewhat funnel-shaped, shorter than, subequal to or, occasionally a little longer than the lobes; lobes contorted in to the left bud, spreading.
    Stamens
    Stamens attached at mouth of corolla tube, exserted, semi-erect to divergent; filaments ± one-third the length of the anther; anthers linear, attached dorsally up to one-third from the base.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, papery to subcoriaceous; domatia usually present, hairy; stipules shortly sheathing, with a truncate to triangular limb usually bearing a linear to subulate lobe, often caducous
    Flowers
    Flowers appearing precociously or not, hermaphrodite, (4–)5-merous, terminal, less often axillary or both terminal and axillary, sessile to shortly pedicellate; bracts and bracteoles absent or glumaceous, flower sometimes subtended by young leaves above the bracteoles
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube ovate to campanulate; limb subequalling the disc, 5-lobed or irregularly toothed, and margin beset with colleters
    Corolla
    Corolla white; tube cylindrical but widened at apex, equalling to over twice as long as the lobes, glabrous or sparsely pubescent outside; lobes contorted in bud, spreading
    Anthers
    Anthers set at mouth of corolla, sessile, linear, shortly apiculate at apex, scarcely hastate at base, usually attached above to well above the mid-point, with the apical part exserted or sometimes entirely included, occasionally tending to adhere towards base
    Disc
    Disc annular
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; placentas small, attached to middle or somewhat above middle of septum; style cylindrical, slender, glabrous, usually short, reaching less than 1/3 of the way up the corolla-tube; stigma included, bifid; arms linear to narrowly oblong or ?lanceolate, sometimes not separating
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe, ellipsoid or broader than long and distinctly 2-lobed, containing 2, 1-seeded cartilaginous pyrenes; calyx-lobes greatly or not at all accrescent
    Seeds
    Seed oblong-ellipsoid, grooved on inner face; endosperm pale in colour, horny, asymmetrically folded from groove, embryo somewhat curved; testa thin, smooth at low magnifications.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Ascension, Belize, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Galápagos, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., St.Helena, Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Coffea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Cheek, M. [12443], Cameroon 76098.000
    Davis, A.P. [2141], Madagascar 63891.000
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8450] K001125537
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8450] K001125538

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 172 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Davis, A.P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D.M. & Stoffelen, P. (2006). An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152: 465-512.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • A. Chev. Les Caféiers du Globe 3 (1947)
    • A. Chev. Les Caféiers du Globe 2 (1942)
    • Lebrun, Inst. Roy. Colon. Belge, sect. Sci. Nat. et Méd., Mém. 11 (1941).
    • A. Chev. Les Caféiers du Globe 1 (1929)
    • —F.T.A. 3: 179
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • J.D. Hooker in Bentham & J.D. Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 114 (1873).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 80 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 172 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • G.P. 2: 114 (1873)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 80 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 172 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0