1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Calamus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to SW. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Solitary or clustering, acaulescent to high-climbing pleonanthic dioecious palms
    Stem
    Stems very slender, only a few mm. in diameter to robust (15 cm. or more), in Africa moderate, 1–3 cm. in diameter, branching sympodially at the base
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths tightly enclosing the stem, variously armed with spines and spiculae or unarmed, often covered with indumentum; often continued into an ocrea of varying length (in Africa conspicuous)
    Leaves
    Mature leaf of two kinds, either terminating in a long barbed whip (cirrus) or without such a whip (African and some Asiatic species), species without a cirrus normally but not always bearing a similar barbed whip (flagellum), adnate to the leaf-sheath at the base, equivalent to a modified sterile inflorescence.
    Petiole
    Petiole prominent or absent, variously armed with spines and hooks.
    Rachis
    Rachis usually armed with reflexed hooks.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets narrow to broad or rhomboid (praemorse in one Australian species), single-fold, arranged regularly or irregularly on either side of the rachis or variously clustered, fanned or paired, variously hairy, scaly or spiny
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, with the base of the peduncle adnate to the internode and sheath of the following leaf, hence appearing in a non-axillary position, branching to 2–4 orders, with or without a long terminal flagellum. In ♂ inflorescence flowers solitary, borne together with a bracteole (‘involucre’) In ♀ inflorescence flowers borne in pairs, a sterile ♂ (acolyte) together with a fertile ♀ and 2 bracteoles (‘involucrophore’ and ‘involucre’)
    Bracts
    Bracts variously armed, tubular, tightly sheathing, very rarely splitting, sometimes with an expanded limb, never caducous, though rarely tattering and decaying before fruiting; prophyll usually 2-keeled and empty; other bracts on main axis subtending close to very distant partial inflorescences; partial inflorescences bearing bracts subtending rachillae; rachillae usually with approximate tubular bracts, each, except for the one or more basalmost, subtending a flower or flower group.
    Male
    In ♂ inflorescence flowers solitary, borne together with a bracteole (‘involucre’) Male flower symmetrical; calyx tubular, 3-lobed; corolla 3-lobed, divisions almost reaching the base; stamens 6, epipetalous, with free filaments; pistillode minute or absent. Sterile ♂ flower as the fertile ♂ but anthers empty.
    Flowers
    Female flower with calyx and corolla ± as in the ♂ flower; staminodes 6; ovary covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales and tipped with 3 stigmas; locules 3, incomplete, each with a single ovule, normally only 1 ovule developing Male flower symmetrical; calyx tubular, 3-lobed; corolla 3-lobed, divisions almost reaching the base; stamens 6, epipetalous, with free filaments; pistillode minute or absent. Sterile ♂ flower as the fertile ♂ but anthers empty.
    Female
    Female flower with calyx and corolla ± as in the ♂ flower; staminodes 6; ovary covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales and tipped with 3 stigmas; locules 3, incomplete, each with a single ovule, normally only 1 ovule developing In ♀ inflorescence flowers borne in pairs, a sterile ♂ (acolyte) together with a fertile ♀ and 2 bracteoles (‘involucrophore’ and ‘involucre’)
    Fruits
    Fruit variously shaped, tipped with the stigmatic remains, bearing persistent calyx and corolla basally, and covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales
    Seeds
    Seed with thick or thin, sweet or sour or very astringent sarcotesta and variously shaped hard diaspore; endosperm homogeneous or ruminate; embryo basal or lateral.
    [PW]
    Vernacular
    Rattan, rotan; for local names see Dransfield 1979a.
    General Description
    Solitary or clustered, spiny, acaulescent, erect, or high-climbing, pleonanthic, dioecious, rattan palms. Stem eventually becoming bare, with short to long internodes, sucker shoots strictly axillary. Leaves pinnate, rarely bifid, sometimes with a terminal cirrus; sheath splitting in acaulescent species, in the exposed area usually densely armed with scattered or whorled spines, in one species (Calamus polystachys) the spines interlocking to form galleries occupied by ants, indumentum often abundant on sheath surface; ocrea often present, sometimes greatly elaborated, papery and disintegrating, or coriaceous, rarely greatly swollen or diverging with inrolled margins and occupied by ants; knee present in most climbing species; flagellum (climbing whip derived from a sterile inflorescence) often present in species lacking cirri, very rarely a small vestigial flagellum present in cirrate species (e.g., C. pogonacanthus); petiole absent or well developed, flattened adaxially, rounded abaxially, variously armed; rachis often armed with distant groups of reflexed grapnel spines; cirrus when present armed with scattered (rarely) or grouped reflexed spines; leaflets few to very numerous, single-fold, entire or in 1 species praemorse (C. caryotoides), linear to lanceolate or rhomboid, sometimes the terminal pair partially joined along their inner margins forming a terminal compound leaflet or flabellum, regularly arranged or irregular, grouped, sometimes fanned within the groups, concolourous or discolourous, variously bearing hairs, bristles, spines, and scales, midribs conspicuous or not, transverse veinlets conspicuous or obscure. Inflorescences axillary but adnate to the internode and leaf sheath of the following leaf, staminate and pistillate superficially similar, but the staminate usually branching to 3 orders and the pistillate to 2 orders, the inflorescence frequently flagelliform, very rarely rooting at its tip and producing a new vegetative shoot; peduncle absent or present, sometimes very long, erect or pendulous, variously armed; prophyll usually inconspicuous, 2-keeled, tubular, tightly sheathing, variously armed or unarmed, rarely inflated, papery or coriaceous, splitting down one side, usually empty; rachis bracts persistent, like the prophyll, close or sometimes very distant, variously armed, usually strictly tubular, even where splitting remaining tubular at the base, rarely irregularly tattering in the distal part, each subtending a first-order branch or ‘partial inflorescence’, this frequently adnate to the rachis above the bract axil, very rarely bursting through the bract; first-order branch bearing a 2-keeled, tubular prophyll and ± subdistichous, tubular bracts, unarmed or variously armed, each subtending a second-order branch, usually adnate to the first-order branch above the bract node; rachillae very varied within the genus, spreading to very short and crowded, bearing a basal, 2-keeled prophyll and conspicuous, usually distichous, tubular bracts with triangular tips, variously armed or unarmed, very rarely the bracts highly condensed and spiral, in staminate rachilla, each bract subtending a solitary staminate flower bearing a prophyllar bracteole, in pistillate rachilla each bract subtending a dyad of a sterile staminate and a fertile pistillate flower and 2, usually quite conspicuous, prophyllar bracteoles, very rarely each bract subtending a triad of 2 lateral pistillate flowers and a central sterile staminate flower. Staminate flowers symmetrical; calyx tubular at the base, 3-lobed distally; corolla usually exceeding the calyx, divided into 3, valvate lobes except at the tubular base; stamens 6 (12 in Calamus ornatus), borne at the mouth of the corolla tube, filaments often fleshy, elongate, sometimes abruptly narrowed, anthers medifixed, short to elongate, latrorse or introrse; pistillode minute to quite conspicuous. Pollen ellipsoidal, bi-symmetric; apertures equatorially disulcate; ectexine tectate or semi-tectate, psilate, perforate, coarsely perforate, foveolate, finely to coarsely reticulate, reticulate-rugulate, verrucate, gemmate or, rarely, ectexine intectate with large, loosely attached, psilate gemmae,aperture margins usually similar to surrounding ectexine; infratectumcolumellate; longest axis 17–67 µm; post-meiotic tetrads tetragonal[104/363]. Sterile staminate flowers like the fertile but with empty anthers.Pistillate flowers usually larger than the staminate; calyx tubular, shallowly3-lobed; corolla rarely exceeding the calyx, divided more deeply than thecalyx into 3 valvate lobes; staminodes 6, epipetalous, the filaments distinctor united into a short ring, anthers empty; gynoecium tricarpellate,triovulate, spherical to ellipsoidal, covered in reflexed scales, stigmas 3,apical, fleshy, reflexed, sometimes borne on a beak, locules incomplete,ovules basal, anatropous. Fruit usually 1-seeded, rarely consistently 2- or3-seeded, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp covered in neat vertical rowsof reflexed scales, mesocarp usually very thin at maturity, endocarp notdifferentiated. Seed with thick sweet, sour, or astringent sarcotesta, innerpart of the seed rounded, grooved, angled, or sharply winged, endospermhomogeneous or ruminate; embryo basal or lateral. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid or pinnate. Cytology: 2n = 26.
    Diagnostic
    Immensely variable genus of mostly climbing palms, some acaulescent or erect, found in equatorial Africa, India, Himalayan foothills to south China, throughout Southeast Asia to the western Pacific Islands and Australia; sheaths, petioles and rachis usually densely armed, leaf often terminating in a cirrus armed with spines, or cirrus absent; flagellum sometimes present (sterile inflorescence modified as a climbing organ); pleonanthic and dioecious, the inflorescence is very varied but bracts are usually tubular, sometimes splitting, but if so, never to the base and never caducous.
    Distribution
    With about 374 species, Calamus isthe largest palm genus. It has a very wide distribution, occurring in the humid tropics of Africa (one variable species), India, Burma, and south China through the Malay Archipelago to Queensland and Fiji, reaching greatest diversity and number of species in the Sunda Shelf area (especially Borneo), with a second centre of diversity in New Guinea.
    Morphology
    Leaf, petiole, stem, root (Tomlinson 1961), root(Seubert 1996a). Similar in anatomy to Ceratalobus, Myrialepis,and Plectocomiopsis.
    Biology
    The ecology is very varied as might be expected in such a large genus, but, although some species are adapted to seasonally dry habitats such as monsoon forest, there are no species in semi-arid habitats. There are species adapted to sub-mangrove conditions (C.erinaceus). Other species have narrow ecological requirements, such as limestone or ultrabasic soils. In altitude, the genus ranges from sea-level to over 3000 m (C. gibbsianus on Mt Kinabalu).
    [PW]
    Biology
    All species are found in lowland and hill tropical rain forest and do not occur above 1000 m altitude; all are usually confined to dipterocarp forest but Ceratolobus subangulatus also occurs in heath forest in Sarawak, where it is the most conspicuous rattan in some facies. The pollination ecology of the extraordinary closed inflorescence deserves further study.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1996a).
    Diagnostic
    Slender clustering climbing palms, found in South Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra and Java, immediately distinguished by the single large bract (the prophyll) that covers the entire inflorescence and opens by two apical slits.
    General Description
    Slender to moderate, clustered, spiny, climbing, pleonanthic, dioecious, rattan palms. Stem eventually becoming bare, with long internodes and conspicuous nodal scars, white mucilage sometimes exuding from cut surfaces. Leaves of mature climbing stems cirrate, pinnate; leaf sheath tubular, armed with spines and/or spicules, frequently organised into whorls, and often with abundant indumentum; knee present, sometimes rather weakly developed; ocrea inconspicuous; flagellum absent; petiole present or absent, if present, flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, armed with spines and sometimes with spicules; cirrus and distal part of rachis armed with regular groups of grapnel spines on the abaxial surface; leaflets relatively few, linear to lanceolate and entire, or rhomboid and praemorse, concolourous or discolourous, regularly arranged or grouped; emerging leaf pink-tinged. Inflorescences axillary but adnate to the internode and sheath of the following leaf, sessile and erect or pendulous on a long slender, unarmed or spiny peduncle, the whole inflorescence much shorter than the leaves; staminate inflorescence branching to 3 orders, pistillate to 2 orders, prophyll persistent, membranous to subwoody, flattened-tubular with lateral wings and a terminal beak, entirely enclosing the inflorescence, opening at anthesis by 2 narrow, lateral slits in the beak, this remaining the only access to the flowers during anthesis and young fruiting stage, prophyll unarmed or rarely armed with scattered spines, frequently bearing caducous indumentum, prophyll often splitting longitudinally in fruit, very rarely falling completely, staminate and pistillate inflorescences indistinguishable without splitting the prophyll; peduncular bracts absent; rachis bracts inconspicuous, tubular, with triangular limbs, each (and the prophyll) subtending a first-order branch, usually adnate to the axis for a short distance above the bract node. Staminate flowers borne singly, subdistichously, rather distant from each other, each subtended by a membranous triangular bract and a 2-keeled, prophyllar bracteole, the latter ± forming a cushion beneath the flower; calyx tubular, with 3 short triangular lobes; petals 3, boat-shaped, valvate, briefly joined basally; stamens 6, borne at the base of the corolla, filaments short, fleshy, anthers linear, latrorse; pistillode trifid, minute. Pollen ellipsoidal, bi-symmetric; apertures equatorially disulcate; ectexine tectate or semi-tectate, finely or coarsely perforate, or foveolate-reticulate, aperture margins similar or finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 22–30 µm [3/6]. Pistillate flowers borne with a sterile staminate flower and 2 similar 2-keeled prophyllar bracteoles, in a cup formed by the subtending bract. Sterile staminate flower like the fertile but usually rather distorted by close packing and with empty anthers and borne on a short to long stalk. Pistillate flowers larger than the staminate; calyx tubular, with 3 short, triangular lobes; corolla partially divided into 3, valvate, triangular lobes; staminodes 6, epipetalous, flattened; gynoecium incompletely trilocular, triovulate, globose, or ellipsoidal, covered in scales, stigmas 3, fleshy, recurved, borne on a short style, ovule basally attached, anatropous. Fruit l-seeded, globose to ellipsoidal, stigmatic remains apical, epicarp covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales, mesocarp becoming thin and papery as fruit ripens, endocarp not differentiated. Seed attached basally, globose to ellipsoidal, with thin or thick, sour or sweet sarcotesta and homogeneous or ruminate endosperm; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll with 4–6 praemorse or entire, crowded leaflets displayed in a fan. Cytology: 2n = 26.
    Distribution
    Six species confined to the perhumid areas of the Sunda Shelf (Malay Peninsula [2], Sumatra [4], Borneo [3], Java [2]).
    Vernacular
    Rattan, rotan.
    [PW]
    Biology
    Retispatha dumetosa forms thickets on hillslopes and valley bottoms in hill Dipterocarp forest. It is absent from montane and heath forest and although its habitat is widespread, it is a rare palm.
    Distribution
    A single species endemic to Borneo, where it is has been recorded from scattered localities throughout the island.
    General Description
    Moderate, clustered, erect or briefly climbing, spiny, pleonanthic, dioecious, rattan palm. Stem eventually becoming bare, relatively robust, with conspicuous nodal scars and relatively short internodes, short bulbil-like shoots sometimes present at the nodes in the lower part of the stem, adventitious roots also abundant at lower nodes. Leaves without cirrus, pinnate; sheath tubular, densely armed with slender spines in whorls and partial whorls, and dense indumentum; ocrea absent; knee absent; flagellum absent; petiole well developed, channelled adaxially, armed with abundant lateral and abaxial groups of spines; rachis armed with reflexed grapnel spines in groups of up to 5, and bearing abundant indumentum; leaflets numerous, regularly arranged, single-fold, linear, armed along margins and main veins with bristles, midribs prominent, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Inflorescences axillary, but adnate to the internode and leaf sheath of the following leaf, erect at first, becoming pendulous, staminate and pistillate superficially similar, branched to 3 orders in staminate, to 1 (rarely 2) orders in pistillate; prophyll large, tubular in proximal 1/2, splitting and tattering distally, densely covered with black spines in partial whorls; peduncular bracts absent; rachis bracts similar to the prophyll; first-order branches becoming pendulous at anthesis, bearing distichous, imbricate, unarmed bracts, tubular in proximal 2/3, with a triangular limb, composed of close criss-cross fibres producing a fine network, each net-like bract subtending and partially or wholly enclosing in the staminate inflorescence a catkin-like condensed branching system; each second-order branch subtended by a triangular, membranous, ciliate-margined tubular bract; third-order branchlets (rachillae) bearing membranous ciliate-margined tubular bracts, each subtending a 2-keeled ciliate-margined, tubular bracteole and a single staminate flower. Staminate flowers very small, ± symmetrical; calyx tubular with 3, triangular lobes tipped with hairs; corolla about twice as long as the calyx in bud, tubular only at the very base, lobes 3, striate, valvate, at anthesis the receptacle elongating, the corolla then appearing tubular in the basal 1/3; stamens 6, free from the corolla in bud, becoming briefly epipetalous, filaments briefly connate laterally, anthers oblong to ovate, dorsifixed near the base, latrorse; pistillode trifid, very small. Pollen ellipsoidal, bi-symmetric; apertures equatorially disulcate; ectexine tectate, perforate-rugulate with supratectal, often vertically ridged spines, aperture margins similar; infratectum columellate; longest axis 19–24 µm [1/1]. Pistillate inflorescences sometimes with 1 major branch near the base, the rachillae borne on the axis and on this major branch, or more frequently the rachillae borne on the main axis only; rachillae subtended by distichous, imbricate, net-like bracts as in the staminate inflorescence, rachillae usually concealed by the bracts, bearing up to ca. 20 distichous, tubular, ciliate-margined bracts, each enclosing a 2-keeled prophyllar bracteole, a tubular, second bracteole and 1 pistillate flower; sterile staminate flowers lacking (see notes). Pistillate flowers much larger than the staminate; calyx tubular, with 3 short triangular, valvate lobes, splitting after fertilization; corolla tubular, slightly shorter than the calyx, with 3 short valvate lobes, also splitting further; staminodes 6, briefly epipetalous, filaments connate laterally to form a short tube, empty anthers flattened; gynoecium incompletely trilocular, triovulate, ovoid, scaly, stigmas 3, conspicuous, reflexed, fleshy, borne on a non-scaly style, ovule basally attached, anatropous. Fruit 1-seeded, partially concealed by the net-like bracts, ovoid to slightly obpyriform, beaked, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp with neat vertical rows of reflexed scales, mesocarp thin, endocarp not differentiated. Seed basally attached with thin sweet sarcotesta, endosperm obscurely angled, homogeneous; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll pinnate with ca. 4 ciliate-hairy leaflets on each side of the rachis. Cytology not studied.
    Morphology
    Not studied.
    Diagnostic
    Erect or shortly climbing palm of Borneo; sheaths, petioles and rachis are densely armed, the sheaths lacking a knee and a cirrus absent; inflorescences are interfoliar and pendulous, all bracts net-like.
    Vernacular
    Wi tebu bruang (Malay, the bear’s sugar-cane).
    [PW]
    Distribution
    Three species, one in Malay Peninsula and Sarawak (Borneo), the other two confined to Sarawak.
    Diagnostic
    Slender solitary or clustering erect or short climbing palms, found in Malay Peninsula and Borneo; immediately distinguished by the two strange erect spiny slender ear-like lobes (auricles) at the base of the petiole.
    General Description
    Solitary or clustered, spiny, erect or short-climbing, pleonanthic, dioecious, rattan palms. Stem with short internodes. Leaves pinnate, without cirrus; sheath tubular, densely armed with whorled and scattered spines and caducous tomentum, terminating in 2 erect, narrow auricles, 1 on each side of the petiole, the auricles variously armed like the sheath; knee absent or poorly developed; flagellum absent; petiole well developed, flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, armed with reflexed grapnel spines and various papillae and hairs; rachis armed as the petiole; leaflets few to very numerous, linear, single-fold, regularly arranged, very crowded to very distant, the surface covered with a variety of bristles and scales, midribs prominent adaxially, transverse veinlets short, conspicuous. Inflorescences axillary but adnate to the internode and leaf sheath of the following leaf, held erect between the 2 auricles of the subtending leaf, ± sessile, the pistillate branching to 2 orders, the staminate to 3 orders; prophyll enclosing the inflorescence, boat-shaped, with a flattened beak, armed or unarmed, splitting longitudinally along the mid adaxial or abaxial line, thus exposing the flowers; rachis bracts very much smaller than the prophyll, with free tips, each and the prophyll subtending a variously hairy branch; bracts on first-order branches tubular at the base, with triangular limbs. Staminate flowers solitary, borne subdistichously on branches of the second or third-order, each subtended by a minute, short, tubular, triangular bract and bearing a 2-keeled bracteole; calyx tubular in proximal part, striate, with 3 triangular lobes; corolla split almost to the base into 3 triangular valvate lobes; stamens 6, borne at the base of the corolla lobes, filaments fleshy, elongate, inflexed at the tips, anthers oblong, medifixed, sagittate basally, latrorse; pistillode minute. Pollen spheroidal, bi-symmetric; monoporate with pore on one of two short axes of grain; ectexine tectate or semi-tectate, perforate-rugulate or foveolate-reticulate, aperture margin usually similar; infratectum columellate; longest axis 18–32 µm [2/3]. Pistillate flowers in dyads, each subtended by a small, triangular bract, and consisting of a pistillate and a sterile staminate flower and two 2-keeled cup-like bracteoles. Sterile staminate flower like the fertile but tending to be contorted by close-packing and with empty flattened anthers and a variable pistillode. Pistillate flowers larger than the staminate; calyx cupular, striate, lobes triangular, valvate; corolla split almost to the base into 3 triangular, valvate lobes; staminodes 6, epipetalous; gynoecium incompletely trilocular, triovulate, ovoid, scaly, stigmas 3, fleshy, rugose, divergent, ovule basally attached, anatropous. Fruit 1-seeded, globose or ovoid, beaked, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp covered in neat vertical rows of reflexed magenta to chestnut-coloured scales, mesocarp becoming thin and dry at maturity, endocarp not differentiated. Seed basally attached, sarcotesta thick, sweet, endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll pinnate or with a single pair of divergent leaflets. Cytology not studied.
    Vernacular
    Common names not recorded.
    Morphology
    Not studied.
    Biology
    In Borneo, all three species occur as small populations confined to podsolised soils on ridgetops at about 700–1000 m altitude (at the transition between lowland and montane forest) or to some facies of ‘kerangas’ forest (heath forest). In the Malay Peninsula, Pogonotium ursinum has been found in lowland dipterocarp forest.
    [PW]
    General Description
    Solitary or clustered, spiny, acaulescent, erect, or high-climbing, hapaxanthic or pleonanthic, dioecious, rattan palms. Stem eventually becoming bare, with short to long internodes, branching at the base from axillary or leaf-opposed buds. Leaves pinnate, very rarely bifid, usually with a terminal cirrus except in a few acaulescent species and in juvenile individuals; sheath splitting in acaulescent species, in the exposed area densely armed with spines, these frequently organised into whorls and in a few species forming interlocking galleries occupied by ants, scaly or floccose indumentum often abundant between the spines and along their margins; ocrea rarely present; knee present in climbing species; flagellum absent; petiole usually well developed, grooved to rounded adaxially, rounded abaxially, variously armed; rachis and cirrus, except in acaulescent species, armed with grouped reflexed grapnel spines and scattered caducous tomentum; leaflets single-fold, entire, linear to broadly lanceolate, regularly arranged or grouped, rarely fanned within the groups, variously armed with bristles along the longitudinal veins and margins, midribs prominent, 1 pair of lateral veins sometimes large, transverse veinlets short, often conspicuous. Inflorescences axillary but adnate to the internode and leaf sheath of the following leaf, very rarely several inflorescences produced simultaneously from the axils of the most distal leaves, the stem then hapaxanthic, branching to 2–3 orders, staminate and pistillate inflorescences superficially similar, but the staminate usually branching to 1 order more than the pistillate; peduncle absent or present, sometimes very long, erect or pendulous, variously armed; prophyll conspicuous, 2-keeled, woody, coriaceous, membranous or papery, variously armed, tubular at first, later splitting along ±its entire length; peduncular bracts usually absent; rachis bracts ±distichous, similar to the prophyll, also splitting along their entire length, sometimes with the tips remaining enclosed within the tip of the prophyll to form a beak, the flowers at anthesis thus enclosed, or with the tips free, and all bracts but the prophyll normally falling at anthesis, the flowers then exposed or very rarely the bracts persisting; prophyll often empty, sometimes subtending a first-order branch as the other rachis bracts; first-order branches usually covered with abundant floccose indumentum, and bearing very small, truncate, ± distichous bracts, more rarely bracts larger and tattering, each bract subtending a second-order branch adnate to the first-order branch above the node; second-order branches in pistillate inflorescence bearing dyads, in staminate inflorescence branched a further time to give 3 orders of branching, each branch subtended by a bract, staminate inflorescence with flowers sometimes strictly distichous and crowded, or ± distant and subdistichous, sometimes arranged distantly along one side of the rachilla, each flower subtended by a small triangular scale-like bract, more rarely by a short tubular bract, the bracts then ± imbricate. Staminate flowers bearing a short, tubular, 2-keeled prophyll (the involucre of Beccari) sometimes ± stalk-like, frequently very inconspicuous; calyx cupular, striate, shallowly 3-lobed; corolla exceeding the calyx, usually at least twice as long, divided almost to the base into 3 narrow triangular petals; stamens 6, borne at the mouth of the tubular corolla base, usually ± equal, rarely of 2 sizes, filaments slender to rather broad, fleshy, terminating in slender to broad connectives, anthers narrow elongate to broad and somewhat sinuous, introrse; pistillode short, trifid to elongate, slender and unlobed, or absent. Pollen ellipsoidal, bi-symmetric; apertures equatorially disulcate or, rarely, equatorially or subequatorially di-porate; ectexine tectate or semi-tectate, psilate, finely to coarsely perforate, foveolate, rugulate, finely to coarsely reticulate, or densely spinulose or clavate or, rarely, ectexine intectate with long spines on a thick foot layer, aperture margins usually similar to surrounding ectexine; infratectum columellate, longest axis 16–55 µm [56/101]. Pistillate inflorescences like the staminate but with more robust rachillae, pistillate flowers borne in a dyad with a sterile staminate flower; dyad prophyll (involucrophore) usually conspicuously angular, stalk-like; prophyll of pistillate flower (involucre) inconspicuous or cup-like, forming a cushion bearing the flower. Sterile staminate flower quickly shed, as the fertile but with empty anthers. Pistillate flowers only slightly larger than the staminate; calyx cupular, striate, shallowly 3-lobed; corolla ± twice as long as the calyx, divided to ± 1/2 into 3 triangular valvate petals; staminodes 6, borne at the mouth of the corolla tube, with empty anthers; gynoecium incompletely trilocular, triovulate, ovary variable in shape, scaly, stigmas 3, recurved, fleshy, ovules basally attached, anatropous. Fruit variously rounded, obpyriform, turbinate, cylindrical or oblate with apical stigmatic remains; epicarp covered in neat vertical rows of reflexed, sometimes resinous scales, mesocarp thin, endocarp not differentiated. Seed, usually only 1 reaching maturity, angular or rounded, covered with thick, sweet or sour and bitter sarcotesta, endosperm deeply ruminate; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll usually pinnate, sometimes with congested leaflets and appearing almost palmate. Cytology: 2n = 26.
    Vernacular
    Rattan, rotan; for local names see Dransfield (1979a).
    Diagnostic
    Variable genus of mostly climbing palms, some acaulescent and erect, found in Himalayan foothills to south China, throughout Southeast Asia to New Guinea; sheaths, petioles and rachis are usually densely armed and the leaf usually terminates in a cirrus; pleonanthic (rarely hapaxanthic) and dioecious, the inflorescences are either short, with all bracts splitting but remaining enclosed in the prophyll, or longer, with bracts splitting to their bases and mostly caducous.
    Distribution
    101 species; distributed from India and south China through the Malay Archipelago to New Guinea where represented by one species; the greatest morphological diversity and number of species is in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo.
    Morphology
    Leaf, petiole, stem, and root (Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1996a). Leaves often distinguished from Calamus by structure of guard cells, by more frequent and longer fibres around the transverse veinlets and by presence of large tannin cells.
    Biology
    Species are mostly confined to primary tropical rain forest on a great variety of soils, some species with narrow ecological requirements. A few are of a rather more weedy nature, abundant in forest habitats with high-light intensities such as riverbanks; one species in Borneo, Daemonorops longispatha, grows on the landward margin of mangrove forest. Some species are strictly montane, occurring at altitudes up to ca. 2500 m above sea level. Several species in Borneo are confined to heath forest, or to limestone or serpentine rock. With so many species, it is difficult to give more precise ecological data.
    [PW]
    Use
    The finest kinds of rattan are all species of Calamus. C. manan, C. caesius, and C. trachycoleus, in particular, dominate world trade in rattans. Other species are almost as important. For further details of rattans and their exploitation see Dransfield 1979a. Species of Calamus have a wide range of uses apart from entering the rattan trade. Leaves are used for thatch, spines in various ways, cirri have been used for constructing fish traps, fruits are eaten and may even be sold in local markets, and some species may be medicinally valuable.
    [PW]
    Use
    Species of Ceratolobus appear to have weak, not durable canes and for this reason are scarcely ever utilised.
    [PW]
    Use
    Pogonotium ursinum is very decorative, especially when young,but has not been introduced into general cultivation.
    [PW]
    Use
    The canes of many species are of good quality and enter the rattan trade as well as being used locally. The apices of several species are sought after for food. In the past, red resin from the fruits of species related to and including Daemonorops draco and D. rubra was collected as ‘dragon’s blood’ for medicinal or dyeing purposes. At one time, ‘dragon’s blood’ was an item of trade between Borneo, Sumatra and Malay Peninsula, and China.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Samoa, Trinidad-Tobago

    Calamus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 13, 2008 Barfod, A. [708], Thailand K000526359
    Dec 19, 2006 Kudrjavceva, E. [613], Vietnam K000462517
    Dec 14, 2006 Ellen, R.F. [1262], Indonesia K000462761
    Dec 14, 2006 Ellen, R.F. [547], Indonesia K000462764
    Dec 14, 2006 Ellen, R.F. [217], Indonesia K000462765
    Dec 14, 2006 Ellen, R.F. [586], Indonesia K000462766
    Mar 8, 2006 Barfod, A. [720], Thailand K000526357
    Mar 5, 2006 Barfod, A. [712], Thailand K000526355
    Mar 5, 2006 Barfod, A. [713], Thailand K000526361
    Mar 3, 2006 Barfod, A. [706], Thailand K000526365
    Mar 2, 2006 Barfod, A. [704], Thailand K000526363
    Sep 11, 2005 Rustiami, H. [HR447], Indonesia K000209574
    Sep 10, 2005 Rustiami, H. [HR404], Indonesia K000209573
    Feb 23, 2005 Heatubun, C. [CH545], New Guinea K000208607
    Feb 17, 2004 Watanabe, N.M. [NMW42], Indonesia K000209424
    Feb 25, 2003 Heatubun, C. [CH433], New Guinea K000208600
    Feb 21, 2003 Heatubun, C. [CH417], New Guinea K000208599
    Apr 18, 2002 Whitmore, T. [BSIP2362], Solomon Is. K000030512
    Apr 18, 2002 Whitmore, T. [BSIP2362], Solomon Is. K000525481
    Apr 18, 2002 Banka, R. [2012], Papua New Guinea K000114172
    Apr 18, 2002 Essig, F.B. [LAE64053], Papua New Guinea K000030538
    Apr 18, 2002 Patma [10], Papua New Guinea K000030524
    Apr 18, 2002 Kjaer, A. [531], Papua New Guinea K000114306
    Feb 6, 2002 Baker, W.J. [1105], Papua New Guinea K000114153
    Dec 6, 2001 Desianto, B. [BD06], Indonesia K000114393
    Dec 12, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1131], Papua New Guinea K000114165
    Dec 12, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1132], Papua New Guinea K000114166
    Nov 27, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1120], Papua New Guinea 62128.000
    Nov 27, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1122], Papua New Guinea 70019.000
    Nov 27, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1119], Papua New Guinea K000114156
    Nov 27, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1120], Papua New Guinea K000114157
    Nov 27, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1121], Papua New Guinea K000114158
    Nov 19, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1094], Papua New Guinea K000114151
    Jul 1, 2000 Takhtajan, A. [155], Vietnam K000462459
    Jul 1, 2000 Takhtajan, A. [555], Vietnam K000462466
    Jul 1, 2000 Takhtajan, A. [95], Vietnam K000462467
    Jul 1, 2000 Averyanov, L. [VH1434], Vietnam K000462472
    Jul 1, 2000 Averyanov, L. [VH1533], Vietnam K000462475
    Jul 1, 2000 Thai Tzan Bai [413], Vietnam K000462510
    Jul 1, 2000 Kudrjavceva, E. [610], Vietnam K000462515
    Jul 1, 2000 Kudrjavceva, E. [614], Vietnam K000462518
    Feb 24, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1058], Indonesia K000112777
    Feb 23, 2000 Barrow, S. [127], Indonesia K000112760
    Mar 7, 1999 Baker, W.J. [658], Papua New Guinea K000522479
    Dec 20, 1998 Leighton, M. [657], Indonesia K000112818
    Jul 1, 1998 Walker, J.S. [323], Sulawesi 73577.000
    Jul 1, 1997 Maturbongs, R.A. [544], Indonesia K000525765
    Jul 1, 1997 Maturbongs, R.A. [542], Indonesia K000462963
    Jun 27, 1997 Heatubun, C. [126], Indonesia K000462967
    Jun 27, 1997 Heatubun, C. [137], Indonesia K000522486
    Jun 26, 1997 Maturbongs, R.A. [516], Indonesia K000525735
    May 8, 1997 Upessy [1], Indonesia K000030552
    Jan 1, 1997 Averyanov, L. [VH4332], Vietnam K000462484
    Aug 2, 1996 Maturbongs, R.A. [311], Indonesia K000525774
    Jul 31, 1996 Maturbongs, R.A. [305], Indonesia K000462992
    Jul 28, 1996 Maturbongs, R.A. [298], Indonesia K000462991
    Sep 18, 1995 Maturbongs, R.A. [285], Indonesia K000525736
    Sep 16, 1995 Maturbongs, R.A. [281], Indonesia K000522484
    May 7, 1995 Maturbongs, R.A. [79], Indonesia K000525713
    May 6, 1995 Maturbongs, R.A. [75], Indonesia K000522499
    May 5, 1995 Maturbongs, R.A. [58], Indonesia K000522498
    May 9, 1994 Upessy [6], Indonesia K000525711
    Dec 10, 1993 Morren [2962], Papua New Guinea K000525716
    Oct 10, 1993 Morren [2941], Papua New Guinea K000525727
    Oct 10, 1993 Morren [2945], Papua New Guinea K000525715
    Aug 10, 1993 Morren [2906], Papua New Guinea K000462990
    Oct 7, 1992 Qusa, M. [128], Solomon Is. K000030396
    Oct 6, 1992 Qusa, M. [123], Solomon Is. K000030391
    Oct 6, 1992 Qusa, M. [127], Solomon Is. K000030392
    Oct 6, 1992 Qusa, M. [124], Solomon Is. K000030397
    Dec 17, 1991 Banyeng [S43685], Malaysia K000112799
    Dec 17, 1991 Banyeng [S43662], Malaysia K000112794
    Jul 24, 1986 Mogea, J.P. [4418], Indonesia K000112792
    Jul 24, 1986 Anggana [038], Indonesia K000112795
    Jul 24, 1986 Anggana [043], Indonesia K000112796
    Jul 24, 1986 Anggana [042], Indonesia K000112797
    Dec 11, 1983 Mogea, J.P. [B1544], Indonesia K000112812
    May 30, 1980 Keith [4359], Malaysia K000112833
    Mar 11, 1980 Mogea, J.P. [B1673], Indonesia K000112789
    Mar 11, 1980 Mogea, J.P. [B1607], Indonesia K000112790
    Jul 4, 1979 Heyne [29], Indonesia K000112786
    Jan 1, 1965 Ashton, P. [S17671], Malaysia K000112787
    Bullock, A.A., India 19107.000
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000030398
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [s.n.], Solomon Is. K000208777
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208769
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208770
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208771
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208772
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208773
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208774
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208775
    Waterhouse, J.H.L. [22], Solomon Is. K000208776
    Sands, M.J.S. [3850], Malaysia K000208188
    Whitmore, T. [BSIP3807], Solomon Is. K000030399
    Milliken, W. [1193], Indonesia K000525724
    Milliken, W. [1469], Indonesia K000525712
    Heatubun, C. [275], Indonesia K000522480
    Argent, G. [935], Indonesia K000112802
    Mogea, J.P. [3610], Indonesia K000112793
    Mogea, J.P. [7442], Indonesia K000208222
    Dransfield, J. [JD4370], Indonesia K000112814
    Dransfield, J. [JD4369], Indonesia K000112834
    Dransfield, J. [JD4371], Indonesia K000112813
    Dransfield, J. [JD3925], Indonesia K000112811
    Dransfield, J. [JD7652], Indonesia K000462964
    Dransfield, J. [JD7666], Indonesia K000525722
    Dransfield, J. [JD7688], Indonesia K000462971
    Dransfield, J. [JD7689], Indonesia K000522472
    Dransfield, J. [JD7691], Indonesia K000522471
    Othman [S.57790], Indonesia K000030807
    Henderson, A. [74], Solomon Is. K000030395
    Henderson, A. [3124], Myanmar K000208577
    Henderson, A. [3145], Myanmar K000208580
    Henderson, A. [3153], Myanmar K000208528
    Henderson, A. [3150], Myanmar K000208530
    Henderson, A. [3143], Myanmar K000208531
    Henderson, A. [3165], Myanmar K000208533
    Henderson, A. [3166], Myanmar K000208534
    Henderson, A. [3155], Myanmar K000208535
    Henderson, A. [3144], Myanmar K000208536
    Henderson, A. [3147], Myanmar K000208537
    Henderson, A. [3167], Myanmar K000208541
    Henderson, A. [3177], Myanmar K000208545
    Henderson, A. [3175], Myanmar K000208547
    Henderson, A. [3158], Myanmar K000208548
    Henderson, A. [3127], Myanmar K000208552
    Henderson, A. [3125], Myanmar K000208554
    Henderson, A. [3123], Myanmar K000208555
    Henderson, A. [3122], Myanmar K000208556
    Henderson, A. [3136], Myanmar K000208561
    Henderson, A. [3138], Myanmar K000208567
    Henderson, A. [3174], Myanmar K000208570
    Henderson, A. [3130], Myanmar K000208572
    Henderson, A. [3162], Myanmar K000208574
    Henderson, A. [3443], Vietnam K000526504
    Baker, W.J. [624], Papua New Guinea 61790.000
    Baker, W.J. [627], Papua New Guinea 61793.000
    Baker, W.J. [679], Papua New Guinea K000525714
    Baker, W.J. [635], Papua New Guinea K000462978
    Baker, W.J. [655], Papua New Guinea K000462979
    Baker, W.J. [678], Papua New Guinea K000525783
    Baker, W.J. [627], Papua New Guinea K000525719
    Baker, W.J. [624], Papua New Guinea K000525718
    Baker, W.J. [609], Papua New Guinea K000525717
    Baker, W.J. [825], Indonesia K000462977
    Baker, W.J. [829], Indonesia K000525762
    Baker, W.J. [855], Indonesia K000522470
    Baker, W.J. [813] K000114531
    Baker, W.J. [1314], Papua New Guinea K000526289
    Morren [223], Papua New Guinea K000525784
    Ambri [AA481], Indonesia K000112815
    Christensen [1419], Malaysia K000112788
    Christensen [46], Solomon Is. K000030393
    Croft, J. [LAE65028], Papua New Guinea K000462987
    Ibrahim [BRUN15125], Brunei K000113165
    Witono, J. [JK9], Indonesia K000462975
    Barfod, A. [464], Papua New Guinea K000114312
    Barfod, A. [479], Papua New Guinea K000114329
    Barfod, A. [711], Thailand K000526356
    Maturbongs, R.A. [63], Indonesia K000522493
    Maturbongs, R.A. [116], Indonesia K000522474
    Maturbongs, R.A. [116a], Indonesia K000522473
    Maturbongs, R.A. [25], Indonesia K000462994
    Maturbongs, R.A. [137], Indonesia K000462965
    Maturbongs, R.A. [74], Indonesia K000522494
    Maturbongs, R.A. [585], Indonesia K000462969
    Maturbongs, R.A. [572], Indonesia K000525754
    Maturbongs, R.A. [549], Indonesia K000525746
    Maturbongs, R.A. [552], Indonesia K000525747
    Maturbongs, R.A. [567], Indonesia K000525749
    Maturbongs, R.A. [615], Indonesia K000525745
    Maturbongs, R.A. [604], Indonesia K000462970
    Maturbongs, R.A. [669], Indonesia K000030726
    Walker, J.S. [DB 322], Indonesia K000208196
    Walker, J.S. [DB323], Indonesia K000208189
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8611], Malaysia K001125958
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8612], Malaysia K001125959
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8611], Malaysia K001125960
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8612], Malaysia K001125961
    Van Valkenburg [1418], Indonesia K000112798
    Van Valkenburg [1321], Indonesia K000112816
    Andersen, J. [235], Malaysia K000114141
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8614], India K001125964
    Saigol [23], Malaysia K000112809
    Saigol [29], Malaysia K000112810
    Saigol [12], Malaysia K000112804
    Saigol [30], Malaysia K000112805
    Saigol [32], Malaysia K000112806
    Saigol [34], Malaysia K000112807
    Saigol [31], Malaysia K000112817
    Saigol [36], Malaysia K000112832
    Essig, F.B. [LAE64054], Papua New Guinea K000462993
    Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36554], Papua New Guinea K000522492
    Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36531], Papua New Guinea K000462973
    Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36538], Papua New Guinea K000462974
    Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36187], Papua New Guinea K000522477
    Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36533], Papua New Guinea K000030499
    Awmack, C. [308], Indonesia K000112800
    Awmack, C. [314], Indonesia K000112803
    Poudyal [82], Papua New Guinea K000462976
    Sinke [67], Indonesia K000525723
    Tadong [520], Malaysia K000112808
    Wally, E. [EW831], Indonesia K000525775
    Wally, E. [837], Indonesia K000462966
    Wally, E. [EW833], Indonesia K000462968
    Patma [9], Papua New Guinea K000030508
    Patma [12], Papua New Guinea K000462997
    Patma [13], Papua New Guinea K000030479
    Patma [17], Papua New Guinea K000030478
    Mente [15], Papua New Guinea K000525761
    Mente [19], Papua New Guinea K000462996
    Mente [20], Papua New Guinea K000525769
    Ave, W. [4168], Indonesia K000522489
    Ave, W. [4169], Indonesia K000522488
    Ave, W. [4166], Indonesia K000522487
    Ave, W. [4001], Indonesia K000462980
    Ave, W. [4341], Indonesia K000522481
    Ave, W. [4157], Indonesia K000522475
    Mehen, S. [SM24], Indonesia K000114402
    Walsh, D. [224], Vanuatu K000030394
    Corinus, R.B. [s.n.], Solomon Is. K000208778
    Averyanov, L. [VH1251], Vietnam K000462481
    Nguyen V.D. [1887], Vietnam 65209.000
    Nguyen V.D. [2050], Vietnam 77747.000
    Nguyen V.D. [2145], Vietnam 76260.000
    Nguyen V.D. [1407], Vietnam 76262.000
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8613] K001125962
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8613] K001125963
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132595
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8605] K001125950
    May 15, 2003 Peters, C. [s.n.], Indonesia Ceratolobus K000525472
    Apr 20, 1996 Ching [S56789], Malaysia Pogonotium K000521149
    Mar 1, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5329], Malaysia Pogonotium K000521148
    Feb 13, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5266], Malaysia Pogonotium K000521150
    Dransfield, J. [7139], Brunei Pogonotium K000521147
    Dransfield, J. [7186], Brunei Pogonotium K000521163
    Dransfield, J. [6594], Brunei Pogonotium K000521146
    Dransfield, J. [7378], Brunei Pogonotium K000521155
    Wong, K.M. [1508], Brunei Pogonotium K000521152
    Mar 6, 2006 Barfod, A. [715], Thailand Daemonorops K000526362
    Jul 1, 2000 Kudrjavceva, E. [69], Vietnam Daemonorops K000462512
    Mogea, J.P. [4031], Indonesia Daemonorops K000113974
    Wong, K.M. [493], Brunei Daemonorops K000113975
    Lee, B. [54509], Malaysia Daemonorops K000113971
    Elmer, A.D.E. [20686], Malaysia Daemonorops K000113969
    Elmer, A.D.E. [21367], Malaysia Daemonorops K000113968
    Maturbongs, R.A. [696], Indonesia Daemonorops K000030676
    Saigol [27], Malaysia Daemonorops K000113983
    Soibeh [684], Malaysia Daemonorops K000113972
    Soibeh [687], Malaysia Daemonorops K000113973
    Awmack, C. [297], Indonesia Daemonorops K000113978
    Awmack, C. [320], Indonesia Daemonorops K000113979
    Awmack, C. [302], Indonesia Daemonorops K000113980
    Tadong [419], Malaysia Daemonorops K000113976
    Nguyen V.D. [2148], Vietnam Daemonorops 65212.000
    Nguyen V.D. [2144], Vietnam Daemonorops 77748.000
    Nguyen V.D. [2127], Vietnam Daemonorops 65264.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 325 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Beccari in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11: 73 (1908).
    • F.T.A. 8: 107
    • Sp. Pl. 325 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • app. (1913)
    • Becc. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calc. 11(1) (1908)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 152 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 325 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0