1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Tripogon Roem. & Schult.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Temp. Asia, Bolivia to S. South America.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single terminal subsecund raceme, the spikelets biseriate, overlapping or not, broadside to and appressed to the axis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–many-flowered, laterally compressed, linear to elliptic, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; glumes 1-nerved or rarely the superior 3-nerved, narrow, keeled, persistent, unequal or subequal, shorter than the lemmas or the superior exceeding the lower lemmas, the inferior often asymmetric; callus villous, sometimes barbate in front at the base of the rhachilla internode; lemmas 3-nerved, dorsally rounded or obtusely keeled, membranous, glabrous, subentire or 2-toothed at the apex, sometimes with additional lobes between the teeth, mucronate or 1–3-awned; palea sometimes winged on the keels.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrow, trigonous to almost terete in section.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (42). Rhizomes absent (42), or short (2). Culms erect (38/39), or geniculately ascending (2/39); slender (3/3); 3-30.9-90 cm long; firm (42), or wiry (2); without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (8/8). Ligule an eciliate membrane (8), or a ciliolate membrane (20), or a ciliate membrane (6), or a fringe of hairs (10), or absent (1). Leaf-blades persistent (43), or deciduous at the ligule (1); aciculate (1), or filiform (26), or linear (18), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (43), or coriaceous (1); stiff (7), or firm (37). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (2/3), or conspicuous (1/3). Leaf-blade apex muticous (43), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes single; erect (9), or ascending (33), or drooping (3); linear, or oblong (1); unilateral; bearing 7-9 fertile spikelets on each (1/5), or 10-14 fertile spikelets on each (2/5), or 15-24 fertile spikelets on each (3/5), or 25 fertile spikelets on each (4/5), or 26-35 fertile spikelets on each (3/5), or 36-48 fertile spikelets on each (2/5), or 49-60 fertile spikelets on each (1/5). Rhachis flattened (16/36), or angular (19/36), or subcylindrical and excavated (1/36). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (4), or contiguous (33), or lax (5), or distant (3); 2 -rowed (38/38). Spikelets sunken (1/31), or appressed (27/31), or ascending (3/31); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (43), or pedicelled (2). Pedicels reduced to a stump (3/3).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (2/2); 2-9-50 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex (42). Spikelets linear (4), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (6), or oblong (34), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 2.5-10.94-65 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (41), or pilose (1), or villous (2). Floret callus pubescent (16/37), or pilose (12/37), or bearded (9/37).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (2/2); 2-9-50 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex (42). Spikelets linear (4), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (6), or oblong (34), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 2.5-10.94-65 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (41), or pilose (1), or villous (2). Floret callus pubescent (16/37), or pilose (12/37), or bearded (9/37).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma (2), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (40), or firmer than fertile lemma (2); parallel to lemmas (43), or recurved at apex (1), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (7), or lanceolate (36), or oblong (5), or ovate (3); 0.25-0.6498-1 length of upper glume; membranous (43), or coriaceous (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (43), or asperulous (1). Lower glume apex entire (31), or with a unilateral tooth (9), or dentate (4); 2 -fid (4/4); emarginate (1/40), or truncate (1/40), or obtuse (6/40), or acute (18/40), or acuminate (23/40), or attenuate (1/40), or setaceously attenuate (1/40); muticous (39), or mucronate (5), or awned (3). Upper glume linear (2), or lanceolate (32), or elliptic (5), or oblong (12); 0.75-1.2-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (41), or coriaceous (3); with undifferentiated margins (41), or membranous margins (1), or scarious margins (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (38/42), or 2 -veined (2/42), or 3 -veined (6/42). Upper glume apex entire (38), or dentate (7); 2 -fid (7/7); emarginate (7/38), or truncate (2/38), or obtuse (5/38), or acute (15/38), or acuminate (17/38), or setaceously attenuate (1/38), or caudate (1/38); muticous (28), or mucronate (13), or awned (7); 1 -awned (7/7).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (2/2); without significant palea (2/2). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (1/2), or ovate (1/2); membranous (2/2); 1 -veined (2/2); acute (2/2); mucronate (1/2), or awned (1/2). Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (13), or elliptic (13), or oblong (19), or ovate (9); membranous (38), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (4); of similar consistency on margins (43), or much thinner on margins (1); without keel (42), or keeled (2); 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness, or scaberulous (1). Lemma lateral veins prominent (2/2); excurrent (11/22), or extending close to apex (12/22). Lemma surface smooth (42), or asperulous (1), or scaberulous (1). Lemma apex entire (5), or dentate (33), or lobed (8); 2 -fid (34/41), or 3 -fid (3/41), or 4 -fid (4/41), or 6 -fid (2/41); incised 0.33 of lemma length; emarginate (3/15), or truncate (3/15), or obtuse (8/15), or acute (3/15), or acuminate (3/15); mucronate (6), or awned (41); 1 -awned (25/41), or 3 -awned (17/41). Principal lemma awn apical (5), or from a sinus (40); straight (39), or curved (1), or flexuous (5), or geniculate (1). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (3/8), or shorter than principal (5/8). Palea embraced by lemma (43), or reflexed at apex (1), or separating from lemma above (1); 0.33-0.9272-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (43/43). Palea keels wingless (22), or winged (22); smooth (38), or scaberulous (5), or scabrous (2); eciliate (16), or ciliolate (26), or ciliate (2). Palea surface glabrous (42), or pilose (2). Palea apex dentate (3/3); muticous (43), or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (42/42).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (8/8); irregularly toothed (1/1); truncate (1/1). Anthers 1 (2/39), or 2 (6/39), or 3 (31/39). Stigmas 2 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (43/43); linear (1/13), or lanceolate (4/13), or ellipsoid (4/13), or oblong (5/13), or ovoid (2/13), or obovoid (1/13); isodiametric (7/7); biconvex (2/8), or plano-convex (1/8), or trigonous (5/8). Embryo 0.25-0.3883-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/2), or elliptic (1/2).
    Distribution
    Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (18), or Tropical Asia (25), or Australasia (1), or North America (1), or South America (3).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Slender densely tufted perennials; culms erect or pendulous, unbranched
    Leaves
    Leaves mainly basal; leaf-blades narrow, usually filiform; ligule a narrow ciliate membrane
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary terminal subsecund spike, the spikelets biseriate, overlapping and ± appressed to the rhachis
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–many-flowered, linear to elliptic, laterally compressed, disarticulating between the florets; glumes 1-nerved or rarely the upper 3-nerved, narrow, keeled, persistent, membranous, unequal, shorter than the lemmas or the upper glume exceeding the lower lemmas, lower glume often asymmetrical; lemmas 3-nerved, rounded or obtusely keeled, membranous, glabrous, the tip 2-toothed or subentire, sometimes with additional lobes between the teeth, mucronate or 1–3-awned; palea usually winged and ciliolate along the margins; callus villous and sometimes bearded in front
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrow, trigonous to almost terete in cross-section.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Inner Mongolia, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen

    Tripogon Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8890], Nepal K001131781
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8890], Nepal K001131782
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 8888], India K001131779
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8889], India K001131780
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8891], India K001131783
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8892] K001131784

    First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 34 (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Phillips & Launert in Kew Bull. 25: 301 (1971).
    • Syst. Veg. 2: 34 (1817)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • S.M. Phillips & Launert in Kew Bull. 25: 301–322 (1971).
    • Syst. Veg. 2: 34 (1817).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Phillips & Launert in K.B. 25: 301 (1971)
    • Syst. Veg. 2: 34 (1817)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0