Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.
Philodendron sp.

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Diagnostic
Evergreen, small to gigantic, mostly climbing hemiepiphytes or epiphytes, sometimes arborescent to rhizomatous terrestrials; leaves with abundant resin canals; leaf blade very variable in shape, from linear to bipinnatifid, trisect or pedatisect, lacking a submarginal collective vein, fine venation parallel-pinnate; inflorescence secreting resin from spathe or spadix at anthesis; endothecium nearly always lacking cell wall thickenings; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; ovary usually 4-8-locular (extreme range 2 to 47-locular); ovules usually hemiorthotropous; placenta axile to basal. Differs from Anthurium in unisexual flowers without perigone, and parallel-pinnate fine venation.
General Description
HABIT : evergreen herbs, small to gigantic, stem repent to rhizomatous, climbing, arborescent or plant rosulate and acaulescent, internodes usually long, often short to very short, intravaginal squamules present, sometimes producing flagelliform shoots. LEAVES : numerous, small to gigantic, prophylls of mature stems caducous, marcescent and deciduous or persistent and membranaceous or decomposing to net-fibrous remains. PETIOLE : sometimes warty or covered with scale-like processes, sometimes swollen, rarely geniculate apically, sheath long and slilghtly ligulate in monopodial leaves of all subgenera and in sympodial leaves of subgen. Pteromischum, otherwise very short and inconspicuous except when subtending inflorescences. BLADE : very variously shaped; simple and linear, cordate, sagittate or hastate, or trifid, trisect, pinnatifid, bipinnatifid, rarely pedatisect, resin glands linear, short to long, obscured to very distinct on abaxial surface; basal ribs sometimes well-developed, primary lateral veins pinnate, rarely pedate, running into marginal vein, secondary lateral and higher order venation parallel-pinnate, sometimes tertiaries and higher order veins transversely reticulate between secondaries, sometimes all veins slender with no distinct primary laterals. FLOWERING BRANCHES : sympodial articles of three main patterns :- subgen. Pteromischum : prophyll, many foliage leaves, 1-2(-3) inflorescences; subgen. Philodendro n : prophyll, following internode suppressed, 1 foliage leaf, 1-11 inflorescences, internode to prophyll of continuation shoot elongated; subgen. Meconostigma : prophyll, following internode developed or very short, 1 foliage leaf, 1(-2) inflorescence, internode to prophyll of continuation shoot suppressed. INFLORESCENCE : 1-11 in each floral sympodium, secreting resin at anthesis, either from spathe or from spadix, rarely from both. PEDUNCLE : usually much shorter than petiole. SPATHE : erect, entirely persistent, deciduous only at ripening of fruit (caducous after anthesis in P. surinamense), fairly thick, sometimes (subgen. Meconostigma) extremely thick, usually constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, cylindric to ventricose, often coloured purple or red within, blade usually boat-shaped, widely gaping at anthesis, later closing, usually white within, rarely red. SPADIX : sessile to stipitate, female zone free, rarely basally adnate to spathe, usually shorter than male zone and separated from it by intermediate sterile zone of staminodial flowers, intermediate sterile zone cylindric or constricted or ellipsoid and thicker than male zone, usually shorter than male zone, sometimes longer (subgen. Meconostigma), a terminal staminodial appendix sometimes also present. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 2-6-androus, stamens free, prismatic to obpyramidal, sometimes very elongated and slender (subgen. Meconostigma), anthers sessile to subsessile, connective thick, apically truncate, overtopping thecae, thecae ellipsoid to oblong, dehiscing by short lateral slit or by subapical pore, endothecial thickenings lacking (except P. goeldii , P. leal-costae). POLLEN : extruded in strands or mixed with resin secretion or exuded in amorphous masses, inaperturate, ellipsoid to oblong or occasionally elongate, medium- sized (mean 40 µm., range 28-54 µm.), mostly perfectly psilate, sometimes from minutely verruculate, scabrate or fossulate to clearly punctate, subfossulate, subfoveolate or subverrucate, rarely densely and coarsely verrucate ( P. leal-costae). STERILE MALE FLOWERS : staminodes usually prismatic, truncate, sometimes clavate, often somewhat similar to stamens. FEMALE FLOWERS : gynoecium ovoid, subcylindric, cylindric or obovoid, ovary (2-)4-8(-47)-locular, ovules 1-50 per locule, usually hemiorthotropous, rarely hemianatropous to nearly anatropous, funicles long to very short, placenta axile to basal, stylar region usually as broad as ovary, sometimes slightly broader, sometimes attenuate, rarely elongate, lobed in subgen. Meconostigma, stigma sometimes also lobed or discoid-hemispheric, often as broad as style. BERRY : subcylindric to obovoid, 1-many-seeded, white, whitish- translucent, red or orange-red. SEED : tiny to fairly large, ovoid-oblong to ellipsoid, rarely arillate (in P. goeldii funicle thick, swollen, much larger than seed itself), testa thick, costate, rarely sarcotestate, embryo axile, straight, elongate, endosperm copious.
Distribution
Mexico to Trop. America.
Habitat
Usually tropical humid forest, more rarely in open woodland, swamps, streamsides; climbing hemiepiphytes, rosulate acaulescent epiphytes, rhizomatous terrestrials, lithophytes (also on cliffs), helophytes, mostly shade-loving, sometimes erect to arborescent pachycauls.

[KBu]

Sakuragui, C., Mayo, S., & Zappi, D. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of Brazilian Species of Philodendron Section Macrobelium. Kew Bulletin, 60(4), 465-513. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25070239

Distribution
Philodendron is a neotropical genus with approximately 90 Brazilian species.
Morphology General Habit
Small to giant herbs, climbers, hemi-epiphytes, epiphytes or growing on land
Morphology Leaves
Blade shape very diverse, simple and linear, cordate, sagittate or hastate, or trisect, pinnatifid, bipinnatifid, rarely pedatisect, primary lateral veins pinnate (very rarely pedate) forming one marginal vein, minor venation parallel pinnate
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole sometimes warty, or covered by scale-like structures, sometimes inflated, rarely geniculate apically
Morphology Leaves Prophyll
Prophyll deciduous or persistent, marcescent, membranaceous or decomposed into fibres
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Unisexual, perigonium absent; male flowers 2-6 androus, stamens free, prismatic to obpyramidal, anthers sessile to subsessile, connective thick, apically truncate, overtopping thecae, thecae ellipsoid to oblong, dehiscing by short lateral slit or by subapical pore; gynoecium of female flowers ovoid, obovoid, subcylindric or cylindric, ovary 2 - 47-locular, 1-50 ovules per locule, usually hemiorthotropous, rarely hemianatropous to nearly or anatropous, funicle long to very short, placenta axial to basal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries subcylindrical to obovoid, 1 - many seeds
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
1-11 for floral sympodium, secreting resin during the anthesis, peduncle usually much smaller than the petiole
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Spathe
Spathe erect, sometimes reflexed, persistent, deciduous only when berries are ripening, usually constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, often coloured purple or red within, blade usually boat shaped, opening up at anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spadix
Spadix sessile or stipitate, female zone usually free or partly adnate to the spathe, feminine zone shorter than the masculine zone, both separated by an intermediate zone of sterile stamens, sometimes with an apical sterile zone
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed ovoid oblong to ellipsoid, rarely arillate, testa thick, embryo axile, straight, elongate, endosperm copious.
Morphology Stem
Stem decumbent, rhizomatous, creeping, sometimes arborescent, internodes usually long, intravaginal squamules present
Note
For full list of synonymy see Mayo (1990).
Type
Lectotype: Philodendron grandifolium (Jacq.) Schott (1829) [Arum grandifolium Jacq. (1797)]. Designated by Britton & Wilson (1923).

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Cook Is., Hawaii, Seychelles, Society Is.

Philodendron Schott appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Whitmore, T.C. [775], Ecuador 22817.000
Whitmore, T.C. [750], Ecuador 22818.000
Whitmore, T.C. [797], Ecuador 25076.000
Pennington, T.D. [1542], Ecuador 25755.000
Whitmore, T.C. [776], Ecuador 25842.000
Whitmore, T.C. [747], Ecuador 26137.000
29047.046
29047.345
Edwards, P.J. [1421], Guyana 41746.000
Edwards, P.J. [1374], Guyana 43765.000
45796.000
45998.000
Ecuador 46111.000
Edwards, P.J. [1117], Guyana 46205.000
Plowman, T. [5938], Peru 46262.000
Plowman, T. [2108], Colombia 46266.000
Brazil 46274.000
Brazil 46287.000
Mayo, S. [in C. Hatsch], Brazil 46290.000
Mayo, S. [in Hatschbac], Brazil 46292.000
Brazil 46366.000
Leppard, M.J. [1378], Colombia 49965.000
Lewis, G.P. [1403], Brazil 54025.000
Harley, R.M. [25137], Brazil 54486.000
Harley, R.M. [25137], Brazil 54537.000
Nelson Roas et al [Arac.2], Brazil 58019.000
Roas, N. [Arac.2], Brazil 58030.000
Mayo, Brazil 58066.000
Mayo [757], Brazil 58080.000
Mayo [727], Brazil 58083.000
Mayo [790], Brazil 58087.000
Mayo [757], Brazil 58091.000
Mayo [803], Brazil 58092.000
Mayo [737], Brazil 58095.000
58097.000
Mayo [722], Brazil 58100.000
Mayo [791] 58118.000
58138.000
58139.000
Mayo [709], Brazil 58915.000
Hetterscheid 58917.000
59007.000
Mayo [727] 59009.000
59011.000
59020.000
59021.000
59022.000
59069.000
59101.000
59262.000
60551.000

First published in Wiener Z. Kunst 3: 780 (1829)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

CATE Araceae

  • Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. 1997. The genera of Araceae. 370 pp.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2008. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/