1. Family: Nyctaginaceae Juss.
    1. Boerhavia Vaill. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Nyctaginaceae, B. L. Stannard. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, often from thick woody or fleshy rootstock, usually many-stemmed, sometimes viscid, raphides often present in all parts.
    Stem
    Stems slender, erect, decumbent or ascending, sometimes woody towards base, terete, often much branched.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, commonly in pairs of unequal size at each node, sometimes fleshy, entire, sometimes repand, petiolate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and axillary, paniculate, umbellate or cymose, sometimes diffuse, pedunculate.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles minute, caducous.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, solitary or glomerate, fugacious, hermaphrodite, subsessile to pedicellate.
    Perianth
    Perianth: lower portion constricted above ovary, cylindrical to obconical, upper portion petaloid, coloured, campanulate, slightly 5-lobed, caducous after anthesis.
    Stamens
    Stamens 1–4(6), exerted or included; filaments filiform, shortly united a base; anthers dithecous, usually subglobular.
    Pistil
    Ovary ellipsoid, shortly stipitate, 1-ovulate; style filiform, exserted or included; stigma capitate.
    Fruits
    Fruit usually more or less filling anthocarp cavity. Anthocarps fusiform, clavate or turbinate, conspicuously 3–5 sulcate, glabrous or glandular pubescent, often viscid; ribs rounded, acute or winged, usually mucous when wet.
    [FTEA]

    Nyctaginaceae, Christopher Whitehouse. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, erect, diffuse or prostrate; stems slender, glabrous or pubescent, often with glandular rings about the internodes, sometimes woody at the base
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, the blades often unequal, entire or sinuate, often fleshy, petiolate or sessile
    Flowers
    Flowers small or minute, bisexual, variously arranged, on jointed pedicels, each subtended by 1 or 2 minute, often deciduous, bracteoles
    Perianth
    Perianth campanulate or trumpet-shaped; the lower half constricted above the ovary, sepaloid and green; the upper half petaloid, brightly coloured, 5-lobed and caducous
    Stamens
    Stamens 1–4(–6), exserted or included; filaments very slender, united at the base
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, narrowed into a thin style; stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Fruit obconical, obovoid, ovoid or terete, 3–5-ribbed, 3–5-angled, or sometimes with 3–5 low, thick wings, glabrous or glandular-pubescent; embryo hooked.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Desventurados Is., Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Bermuda, Brazil North, Easter Is., Free State, Italy, Maryland, Missouri, Niue, Sicilia, Virginia

    Boerhavia Vaill. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Harley, R.M. [21924], Brazil K001138140
    Coradin, L. [6156], Brazil K001138141

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 3 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Struwig, M. (2011). A systematic study of Boerhavia L. and Commicarpus Standl. (Nyctaginaceae) in southern Africa: 1-287. Thesis, Potchefstroom campus of the North-West University.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Sprague in Kew Bull. 1928: 348.
    • Sp. Pl. 3 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 9 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 3 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bittrich & U. Kühn in Kubitzki et al., Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 2: 481 (1993)
    • Noba & Ba in Webbia 46: 327–339 (1992)
    • Stannard in F.Z. 9(1): 20 (1988)
    • Fosberg in Smithson. Contr. Bot. 39: 1–20 (1978)
    • Standl. in Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 12: 375 (1909)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 9 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 3 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0