1. Family: Piperaceae Giseke
    1. Piper L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.


    Piperaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Herbs, shrubs, slender trees, climbers or scramblers, only rarely epiphytic, if with unisexual flowers (usually in the Old World) then monoecious or dioecious; stemsthickened at the nodes, often hollow, sometimes producing adventitious roots, glabrous or with indumentum of simple or multicellular hairs
    Leaves alternate, petiolate, symmetrical or asymmetrical, occasionally peltate, sometimes lobed at the base, membranous to coriaceous; venation palmate or pinnate; petiole sometimes sheathing, the adnate stipule-like organs soon falling
    Inflorescences leaf-opposed or apparently axillary, pedunculate, solitary or in one small but very widespread group several on short leafless shoots
    Flowers hermaphrodite (mostly New World) or unisexual, sessile or pedicellate, crowded to widely placed on an often fleshy rhachis, each with a round triangular semilunate or calceiform bract
    Stamens 2–6; anthers basifixed with thecae usually distinct
    Ovary conoid, subglobose, conic, obovoid or subcylindrical; styles long, short or absent; stigmas 2–4
    Fruits globose, obpyramidal, cylindrical or ovoid to flask-shaped, dry or fleshy, glabrous to densely puberulous, papillose-pubescent or hispidulous, sometimes glandular, often pedicellate.

    Piperaceae, M.A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

    Erect, scandent or climbing shrubs, or sometimes lianes.
    Stems often hollow, jointed at the nodes.
    Leaves alternate, sometimes asymmetrical at the base, membranous or coriaceous.
    Stipules adnate to the petiole, soon caducous.
    Inflorescences axillary or leaf-opposed, pedunculate, with flowers in dense cylindrical spikes, rarely racemose.
    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual; plants monoecious or dioecious.
    Stamens 2–4(6) in the Flora Zambesiaca area; filaments short; anthers basifixed with the thecae usually distinct.
    Ovary ± ovoid to subglobose; stigmas 2–4(5), erect or recurved, sessile or on a short style.
    Fruit a ± globose 1-seeded drupe, sessile, rarely pedunculate.
    Seed sub-globose; testa thin; endosperm and perisperm hard.



    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Christmas I., Florida, Galápagos, Maldives, Seychelles

    Piper L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2003 Ensermu, K. [3560], Cameroon K000180227
    Pennington, R.T. [94], Bolivia 56622.000
    Giles [PB302], Borneo 25237.000
    Johns, R.J. [9201], New Guinea 62500.000
    Johns, R.J. [9843], New Guinea 64282.000
    Johns, R.J. [9846], New Guinea 64284.000
    Johns, R.J. [8974], New Guinea 70220.000
    Johns, R.J. [9189], New Guinea 62563.000
    Johns, R.J. [9839], New Guinea 71222.000
    Johns, R.J. [9841], New Guinea 64371.000
    Cable, S. [2724], Cameroon K000180222
    Triono, T. [178], New Guinea 70637.000
    Wight, R. [Cat. no. s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K001132521

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)


    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1 : 144
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Tebbs in Kubitzki et al., Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 2: 518 (1993).
    • Bentham & Hooker f., Gen. Pl. 3: 129 (1880).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 18 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. : 28 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Tebbs in Kubitzki et al., Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 2: 518 (1993)
    • in Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus., Bot: 23: 1–50 (1993)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 18 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753)


    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0