1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Schizostachyum Nees

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to S. Pacific.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (30/48), or arching (8/48), or leaning (13/48), or scandent (6/48); slender (1/1); 152-1058-5200 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes flush with internodes (5/9), or swollen (4/9). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one (1/33), or two (1/33), or several (8/33), or many (25/33); in a clump (7/7); with subequal branches (17/18), or 1 branch dominant (1/18). Culm-sheaths persistent (7/28), or tardily deciduous (7/28), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/28), or deciduous (14/28); without auricles (19/47), or auriculate (28/47). Culm-sheath blade linear (16/50), or lanceolate (22/50), or narrowly ovate (1/50), or ovate (7/50), or triangular (13/50); narrower than sheath (6/9), or as wide as sheath at base (3/9). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (39), or erect (6), or falcate (18). Ligule an eciliate membrane (46), or a ciliolate membrane (7), or a ciliate membrane (10). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades persistent (61), or deciduous at the ligule (1); linear (3), or lanceolate (52), or elliptic (2), or oblong (14), or ovate (2); stiff (1), or firm (61). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/5), or conspicuous (4/5). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (52), or with obscure cross veins (4), or with distinct cross veins (6).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous (54/54); scanty (1/54), or linear (3/54), or clustered at the nodes (50/54); in stellate clusters (3/50), or untidy tufts (47/50); with glumaceous subtending bracts (48/54), or spathaceous subtending bracts (6/54); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (54/54); leafy between clusters (5/29), or leafless between clusters (25/29), or leafless between branches (1/29). Fertile spikelets sessile (53/54), or sessile and pedicelled (1/54), or pedicelled (1/54).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/5), or 1 basal sterile florets (3/5), or 2 basal sterile florets (2/5); 1 fertile florets (45/54), or 2 fertile florets (8/54), or 3 fertile florets (5/54), or 4 fertile florets (3/54), or 5 fertile florets (2/54), or 6-7 fertile florets (1/54); without rhachilla extension (3/54), or with a barren rhachilla extension (19/54), or with diminished florets at the apex (34/54). Spikelets linear (6/54), or lanceolate (48/54), or oblong (2/54); laterally compressed (34/54), or subterete (20/54); 6-20.91-75 mm long; breaking up at maturity (54/54); disarticulating below each fertile floret (54/54). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (53/54), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/54); glabrous (12/14), or sparsely hairy (1/14), or pilose (1/14).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/5), or 1 basal sterile florets (3/5), or 2 basal sterile florets (2/5); 1 fertile florets (45/54), or 2 fertile florets (8/54), or 3 fertile florets (5/54), or 4 fertile florets (3/54), or 5 fertile florets (2/54), or 6-7 fertile florets (1/54); without rhachilla extension (3/54), or with a barren rhachilla extension (19/54), or with diminished florets at the apex (34/54). Spikelets linear (6/54), or lanceolate (48/54), or oblong (2/54); laterally compressed (34/54), or subterete (20/54); 6-20.91-75 mm long; breaking up at maturity (54/54); disarticulating below each fertile floret (54/54). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (53/54), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/54); glabrous (12/14), or sparsely hairy (1/14), or pilose (1/14).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (4/54), or two (15/54), or several (38/54); persistent (38/39), or lower persistent, upper deciduous (1/39); shorter than spikelet (41/41). Lower glume lanceolate (2/19), or oblong (1/19), or ovate (16/19); 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous (4/4); without keels (4/5), or 1-keeled (1/5); 3-4 -veined (1/4), or 5-6 -veined (2/4), or 7 -veined (3/4), or 8-10 -veined (1/4), or 11 -veined (2/4). Lower glume apex acute (4/11), or acuminate (6/11), or attenuate (1/11); muticous (17/19), or mucronate (1/19), or awned (1/19). Upper glume lanceolate (4/31), or oblong (3/31), or ovate (24/31); 0.3-0.425-0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (15/15); without keels (7/9), or 1-keeled (2/9); 3-4 -veined (1/7), or 5-7 -veined (4/7), or 10 -veined (1/7), or 11 -veined (2/7), or 12-14 -veined (1/7), or 16-18 -veined (1/7). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (53/54), or pilose (1/54). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/18), or acute (10/18), or acuminate (6/18), or attenuate (1/18), or setaceously attenuate (1/18); muticous (21/31), or mucronate (8/31), or awned (2/31); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (2/2); without significant palea (1/1). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1/4), or ovate (3/4); 9 -veined (2/2); emarginate (1/4), or obtuse (1/4), or acute (1/4), or acuminate (1/4), or attenuate (1/4); muticous (2/4), or mucronate (1/4), or awned (1/4). Fertile lemma lanceolate (15/54), or elliptic (1/54), or oblong (4/54), or ovate (39/54); chartaceous (54/54); without keel (53/54), or keeled (1/54); 5-12-22 -veined. Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (43/54), or puberulous (1/54), or pubescent (7/54), or pilose (2/54), or hispid (1/54). Lemma margins flat (10/54), or convolute (44/54); exposing palea (10/54), or covering most of palea (44/54); eciliate (45/54), or ciliolate (3/54), or ciliate (7/54). Lemma apex emarginate (1/52), or truncate (1/52), or obtuse (2/52), or acute (38/52), or acuminate (6/52), or attenuate (6/52), or apiculate (1/52); without ornament (53/54), or pubescent (1/54); muticous (35/54), or mucronate (7/54), or awned (14/54); 1 -awned (11/11). Palea not rolled (10/54), or tightly convolute around flower (44/54); 1-1.04-1.1 length of lemma; chartaceous (54/54); 7-11-20 -veined; without keels (21/54), or 1-keeled (2/54), or 2-keeled (32/54). Palea keels separated (27/32), or contiguous above a sulcus (5/32); smooth (33/34), or scabrous (1/34); eciliate (28/34), or ciliolate (1/34), or ciliate (5/34). Palea surface glabrous (50/54), or puberulous (1/54), or pubescent (3/54), or pilose (1/54). Palea apex entire (1/29), or dentate (28/29); muticous (47/54), or with excurrent keel veins (1/54), or awned (6/54). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (2/34), or distinct from fertile (32/34); 1 in number (28/28); male (2/13), or barren (12/13); rudimentary (25/27), or lanceolate (2/27), or ovate (1/27). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (31/32), or mucronate (1/32).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (15/48), or 1 (2/48), or 2 (2/48), or 3 (31/48), or several (1/48); glabrous (21/34), or ciliate (13/34). Anthers 4 (1/54), or 6 (53/54). Stigmas 2 (3/52), or 3 (51/52). Ovary with a steeple-like appendage (54/54); glabrous (16/22), or pubescent on apex (1/22), or pubescent all over (5/22).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp (54/54); fusiform (3/18), or ellipsoid (1/18), or oblong (10/18), or ovoid (2/18), or obovoid (2/18). Embryo 0.05 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1); 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (12), or Tropical Asia (51), or Pacific (3).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Honduras, Puerto Rico, Tonga

    Schizostachyum Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Christensen, H. [1104], Sarawak K000795371
    Dransfield, S. [SD1297], Philippines K000795368
    Dransfield, S. [SD1330], Philippines K000795369
    Dransfield, S. [SD1400], Thailand K000795376
    Soderstrom [1775], Sri Lanka K000795364
    Yap, S.K. [FRI28447], Peninsular Malaysia K000795363
    Sing, K.L. [S22637], Sarawak K000795365
    Muller, L. [MMF521], Sumatera K000795373
    Muller, L. [MMF514], Sumatera K000795374
    Muller, L. [3], Australia K000795375

    First published in C.F.P.von Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 535 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0