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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees or rarely (and not in Flora area) climbers
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils absent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, conspicuously bilobed, rarely divided as far as the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually large and showy, hermaphrodite, arranged in short usually few-flowered racemes or solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx spathaceous (the sepals ± cohering after the calyx has opened)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Fertile stamens 1–10, sometimes accompanied by staminodes; filaments ± hairy below in native species, often glabrous in the introduced ones
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style elongate; stigma capitate or small, sometimes ± unilateral; funicle of ovule short, at top often with 2 short outgrowths appressed to the seed, one of which may be ± suppressed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods oblong to linear, few- to many-seeded, ± woody, dehiscent or rarely (not in East Africa) indehiscent.

[FZ]

Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, seldom scandent or climbing, without tendrils, but branch tips sometimes coiling.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves bilobed or occasionally divided to the base, palmately nerved; stipules deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in racemes or solitary, usually large and showy, bisexual, zygomorphic.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx spathaceous (the sepals ± cohering after the calyx has opened) above a variably developed hypanthium.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5(6), free.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens 1–10, sometimes accompanied by staminodes, free; anthers opening by longitudinal slits.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary usually stipitate; style elongate; stigma capitate or small, sometimes unilateral.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods linear-oblong to strap-shaped or broadened upwards, ± woody, dehiscent or elsewhere occasionally indehiscent, few- to many-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± compressed; hilum circular or crescent-shaped, with a U-shaped to hairpin-shaped scar of 2 aril lobes developed from the funicle.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Vernacular
camel`s-foot
Habit
Trees and shrubs (sometimes semi-scandent)
Ecology
Seasonally dry tropical bushland, woodland, wooded grassland (savanna and cerrado), thorn scrub (including caatinga) and coastal forest; several on sand or limestone; less than 20 spp. in wet habitats, infrequently in evergreen humid forest and rain forest; c. 15 in montane and submontane areas with B. brachycarpa being reported at elevations of up to 3200m in China. Bauhinia ungulata (Ramirez et al., 1984), B. pauletia (Heithaus et al., 1974, Hokche & Ramirez, 1990) & B. multinervia (Hokche & Ramirez, 1990) have all been shown to be pollinated by bats.
Distribution
A pantropical genus. Sect. Pauletia c. 78 species in tropical America; sect. Bauhinia c. 20 from Mexico to Northeast Brazil; sect. Amaria 18 from N South America to Mexico; sect. Alvesia c. 7 in southern Africa, S Asia, S China and Malesia; sect. Micralvesia 9 in Africa, S Asia, S China and Malesia; sect. Telestria 5 in S Asia, S China and Malesia; sect. Pseudophanera 1 in S Asia and Malesia; sect. Afrobauhinia c. 20 in southern Africa and Madagascar; sect Semla 2 in S Asia; sect Pseudobauhinia 1 in China; sect Benthamia 2 from Brazil to Argentina. In the neotropics, Brazil Southwest is the most diverse region (37 taxa). In Asia and Australasia, the most taxon rich country is Thailand, in Africa Madagascar, both accommodating 16 taxa.
Note
Bauhinia in its broadest sense has been divided by various authors into as many as 26 segregate genera (Wunderlin, 1976). Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) took a broad view of the genus and placed in synonymy all of the segregate genera recognised by De Wit (1956). Most recent African Floras have adopted a less inclusive approach, which is followed here. Bauhinia subgenus Bauhinia was divided into 9 sections, 2 subsections and 19 series by Wunderlin et al. (1987), but section Gigasiphon is here considered as a separate genus. Phylogenetic analysis of the plastid trnL-trnF region by Sinou et al. (2009) indicated that of the 8 sections of Bauhinia described by Wunderlin et al. (1987) only Amaria, Bauhinia & Alvesia are monophyletic. The analysis also indicated that sect. Pseudobauhinia is nested within Bauhinia s.s. rather than Phanera, where it was placed by Wunderlin et al. (1987). We here follow this arrangement, as B. bohniana, the single species in sect. Pseudophanera, is a shrub without tendrils whereas species within Phanera are lianas with tendrils. We have also included section Semla here rather than within Lasiobema on the same morphological grounds. Palynological studies by Banks et al. (2014) indicate that sections Pseudobauhinia, Afrobauhinia, Alvesia & Amaria each have a single distinct pollen type, whereas in each of the sections Pauletia, Telestria and Bauhinia there are 2 distinct pollen types. Some of the neotropical taxa included here in Bauhinia s.s. may later be proven to belong to segregate genera, but we await further evidence in the form of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the whole genus to complement the numerous regional morphological studies.

Tribe Cercideae is basally branching in the Leguminosae (Bruneau et al., 2001; Herendeen et al., 2003a), as predicted by Wunderlin et al. (1981), and Cercis is the most basally branching genus in the tribe. While much taxonomic work has been carried out on the tribe in the past thirty years (e.g., Larsen et al., 1980, 1984; Wunderlin, 1976, 1979; Wunderlin et al., 1981, 1987; Zhang, 1995; Vaz, 2003; Vaz & Tozzi, 2003), few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses and inter- and intra-generic relationships are still largely unresolved with the exception of Cercis (Hao et al., 2001; Davis et al., 2002b).

Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981) divided the tribe into two subtribes, Cercidinae and Bauhiniinae, based on seed, floral and fruit characters. Walpers (1842) had already down-ranked Bauhinieae Benth. (1840) to subtribal status, thus the combination Bauhiniinae (Benth.) Wunderlin (1979) is superfluous. Polhill (1994) kept the Cercideae unchanged with two subtribes and five genera. While the Cercidinae contains three small distinct genera, Cercis, Griffonia and Adenolobus, the Bauhiniinae houses the monospecific Madagascan genus Brenierea and the large, diverse pantropical genus Bauhinia sens. lat. which has been segregated into as many as twenty-six genera by various authors (Wunderlin, 1976).

While many of the Bauhinia segregates are based on minor morphological differences, others are distinguished morphologically by a suite of characters. Britton and Rose (1930), in their account of the Caesalpiniaceae for the North American Flora, divided Bauhinia into several segregate genera, including Schnella Raddi which here is treated as a synonym of Phanera, but might prove to be distinct as indicated in recent molecular analyses by Forest (unpublished data). Britton and Killip (1936) recognised Schnella as distinct from Bauhinia in Colombia. De Wit (1956), treating ‘Malaysian Bauhinieae’, recognised Bracteolanthus, Lysiphyllum, Gigasiphon, Piliostigma, Lasiobema and Phanera as separate genera and this was largely followed by subsequent flora writers in Africa and New Guinea (e.g., Brenan, 1967; Coetzer & Ross in Ross, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979). Others have retained a more inclusive Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987), e.g., Macbride (1943: 207–220) for Peru; Larsen et al. (1980) for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; Larsen et al. (1984) for the Flora of Thailand; Chen (1988) for China, and Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) in Flora Malesiana. Zhang (1995) published a morphological cladistic analysis of the series of Bauhinia sens. lat., but few species of Bauhinia have been included in molecular studies. It remains equivocal as to whether Bauhinia sens. lat. is monophyletic, but preliminary molecular results indicate that some elements should be reinstated as distinct genera (Bruneau et al., in prep.; Forest, unpubl.). This runs contrary to the findings of Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) who concluded “that Bauhinia in the sense of Linnaeus, Bentham, De Candolle, Taubert and Hutchinson is an evolutionary unit and a very natural genus”. Larsen and Larsen also noted that Bauhinia sens. lat. presents a reticulate pattern of variation across its pantropical range (this apparently conflicting somewhat with its status as a “natural genus”). While this is undoubtedly true if the genus is considered as all-inclusive, recent studies of legume distributions in general (Schrire et al., this volume and 2005) have revealed repeated patterns of generic distribution which appear to be duplicated by at least some of the segregates of Bauhinia. If these segregates are recognised as distinct genera (as several are in this treatment) then the reticulate pattern of variation of Bauhinia is far less pronounced. More sampling at the species level in molecular analyses and more morphological studies are needed across the full pantropical range of Bauhinia sens. lat. before inter- and intra-generic relationships are clearly resolved. In the current account genera that have been recognised as distinct from Bauhinia in at least one flora treatment that post-dates De Wit (1956) have been treated as separate genera, especially where these are supported by the preliminary results from a chloroplast trnL (intron and spacer) sequence analysis (Forest, unpubl.). The reader’s attention is also alerted to the detailed infra-generic division of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1987) in their reorganisation of the Cercideae which also forms a sound basis for sampling in future studies.

Palynological studies of Bauhinia (Larsen, 1975; Schmitz, 1977; Ferguson & Pearce, 1986) have all stressed the considerable variation in pollen morphology within the genus sens. lat. and there are clear correlations between pollen exine ornamentation, floral morphology and pollination. It remains to be seen just how closely these correspond to evolutionary relationships of species. Nevertheless, Schmitz (1977) made several new combinations in segregate genera of Bauhinia based on palynological type. These included new names in Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Pauletia, Perlebia and Phanera (Pauletia and Perlebia here considered as synonyms of Bauhinia). Zhang (1995), who analysed morphologically the series of Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1987), concluded that while some supraspecific segregates of the genus were supported, none of the subgenera appeared to be monophyletic. Several realignments were proposed.

The Cercideae as presented here includes 12 genera and (322)–335–(348) species. This treatment differs from Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) and Polhill (1994) in that Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma and Tylosema are considered distinct from Bauhinia. While some of these may well be reincluded in Bauhinia after further study, yet other genera may be reinstated from within Bauhinia. Bracteolanthus, treated as distinct by De Wit (1956), is here included in Lysiphyllum following Wunderlin et al. (1987), while Barklya, considered congeneric with Bauhinia by Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) is considered distinct following George (1998b) and Forest (unpublished data). The reinstatement of Lasiobema appears least well supported (Forest, unpubl.).

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, conspicuously bilobed, or rarely divided to base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually large and showy, bisexual, in short racemes or solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx spathaceous (sepals ± cohering after calyx has opened)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Fertile stamens 1–10, sometimes accompanied by staminodes; filaments glabrous or hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style elongate; stigma capitate or small
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods oblong to linear, few–many-seeded, usually woody, dehiscent (in Flora area).
Distribution
Some 200 species, pantropical, often treated in a broader sense to include such genera as Piliostigma and Tylosema, see e. g. Wunderlin, Larsen & Larsen in Adv. Leg. Syst.: 107–116 (1981).

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[LOWO]
Use
The leaves of B. hirsuta are used as a scabies treatment; a maceration of the leaves of B. jenningsii var. jenningsii is used to treat gastroenteritis, the young seeds of which are edible; the root of B. macrantha used to treat diarrhoea, the seeds of which are used as a coffee substitute, and the pods are edible; B. pottsii var. subsessilis leaves are used for cigarette papers; B. purpurea yields tannin; B. rufescens is browsed by livestock and is said in Senegal to have magical properties that promote the millet harvest and protect the house from snakes; B. tomentosa yields a yellow dye and in Java is utilised to make the handles of ceremonial daggers; B. variegata is browsed by livestock. C.11 species used as ornamental shrubs and trees of streets, parks and gardens throughout the tropics.

Native to:

Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ascension, Bahamas, California, Christmas I., Cook Is., East Aegean Is., Florida, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Iraq, Liberia, Madeira, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Society Is., Solomon Is., Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles

Bauhinia Plum. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Feb 6, 2004 Fiaster, B. [s.n.], São Paulo K000807879
Jan 1, 2004 Amith, J. [0635], Mexico K000654597
Jan 1, 1998 Linares, J.L. [4494], Mexico K000654599
Oct 7, 1992 Proença, C. [830], Brazil K000807920
Jul 15, 1992 Proença, C. [798], Brazil K000807921
Aug 16, 1990 Cavalcanti, T.B. [723], Goiás K000807873
Aug 15, 1989 Leoni, L.S. [734], Minas Gerais K000807898
Hunt, D.R. [5444], Goiás K000807864
Hunt, D.R. [5444], Goiás K000807865
Hunt, D.R. [5974], Mato Grosso K000807899
Hunt, D.R. [5486], Brazil K000807900
Hunt, D.R. [5566], Mato Grosso K000807901
Hunt, D.R. [5974], Mato Grosso K000807902
Philcox, D. [3185], Mato Grosso K000807912
Philcox, D. [4266], Goiás K000807937
Polhill, R.M. [5245], Botswana 52400.000
Hatschbach, G. [66544], Mato Grosso do Sul K000807924
Rico, L. [1427], Bolivia K000295417
Rico, L. [1360], Bolivia K000295474
Rico, L. [1503], Bolivia K000295348
Rico, L. [1412], Bolivia K000295482
Rico, L. [1414], Bolivia K000295405
Rico, L. [1470], Bolivia K000295357
de Carvalho, A.M. [2194], Brazil 52890.000
Ratter, J.A. [R6783], Tocantins K000807880
Ratter, J.A. [6887], Tocantins K000807881
Ratter, J.A. [6757], Maranhão K000807882
Ratter, J.A. [R7558], Mato Grosso do Sul K000807925
Ratter, J.A. [7559], Mato Grosso do Sul K000807926
Ganev, W. [553], Bahia K000807848
Ganev, W. [553], Bahia K000807849
Queiroz, L.P. [3842], Bahia K000807954
Pirani, J.R. [1954], Tocantins K000807945
Pirani, J.R. [1630], Brazil K000807946
Coradin, L. [8628], Bahia K000807844
Coradin, L. [8641], Bahia K000807846
Coradin, L. [8545], Bahia K000807854
Coradin, L. [3369], Bahia K000807855
Coradin, L. [7204], Tocantins K000807863
Coradin, L. [2179A], Goiás K000807874
Coradin, L. [3739], Tocantins K000807876
Coradin, L. [6824], Mato Grosso K000807888
Coradin, L. [8705], Goiás K000807915
Coradin, L. [2253], Maranhão K000807916
Coradin, L. [4910], Roraima K000807918
Coradin, L. [2702], Pará K000807923
Coradin, L. [1119], Brazil K000807927
Coradin, L. [6878], Mato Grosso K000807928
Coradin, L. [8705], Goiás K000807932
Coradin, L. [7597], Bahia K000807935
Coradin, L. [7595], Bahia K000807936
Carvalho, A.M. [6196], Bahia K000807852
Carvalho, A.M. [5218], Bahia K000807857
Carvalho, A.M. [2148], Mato Grosso K000807904
Carvalho, A.M. [2219], Mato Grosso K000807938
Carvalho, A.M. [2194], Mato Grosso K000807944
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1474], Goiás K000807868
Cavalcanti, T.B. [790], Goiás K000807869
Cavalcanti, T.B. [845], Goiás K000807870
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1518], Goiás K000807872
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1583], Goiás K000807875
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1517], Goiás K000807914
Cavalcanti, T.B. [624], Brazil K000807917
Cavalcanti, T.B. [712], Goiás K000807933
Cavalcanti, T.B. [712], Goiás K000807934
Cordeiro, I. [10198], Minas Gerais K000807939
Jardim, J.G. [1110], Bahia K000807845
Jardim, J.G. [1053], Bahia K000807850
Barros, M. [2256], Brazil K000807886
Heringer, E.P. [14250], Goiás K000807871
Andrade, K. [279], Pernambuco K000807956
Andrade, K. [279], Pernambuco K000807957
Eiten, G. [10430], Maranhão K000807942
Eiten, G. [5363], Maranhão K000807950
Silva, M.G. [3441], Pará K000807940
Kirkbride, J.H. [2888], Brazil K000807913
Passos, L. [400], Bahia K000807843
Laurênio, A. [213], Pernambuco K000807955
Esteves, G.L. [15459], Minas Gerais K000807878
Guedes, M.L.S. [7018], Bahia K000807842
Paula, J.E. [3283], Goiás K000807894
Alvarenga, D. [1197], Goiás K000807867
Folli, D.A. [2062], Espírito Santo K000807890
Ferrucci, M.S. [1066], Bahia K000807851
Ribas, O.S. [7821], Minas Gerais K000807877
Bridgewater, S. [S 759], Tocantins K000807930
Brooks, R.R. [571], Goiás K000807859
Brooks, R.R. [491], Goiás K000807860
Brooks, R.R. [684], Goiás K000807861
Marquete, R. [2262], Goiás K000807889
Oliveira, F.C.A. [495], Goiás K000807862
Burchell, W.J. [6643], Goiás K000807906
Burchell, W.J. [5124-2 (4893)], São Paulo K000807908
Burchell, W.J. [5850], Brazil K000807931
Robert, A. [476b], Mato Grosso K000807907
Robert, A. [379b], Mato Grosso K000807909
Robert, A. [821], Mato Grosso do Sul K000807910
Robert, A. [s.n.], Espírito Santo K000807911
Herrera, G. [3086], Costa Rica K000654601
Fróes, R.L. [21457], Amazonas K000807943
Atkins, S. [5087], Bahia K000807847
Calderón, C.E. [2523], Amazonas K000807905
Alencar, M.E. [244], Piauí K000807953
Alencar, M.E. [255], Piauí K000807959
Azevedo, M.L.M. [1225], Minas Gerais K000807958
Mendonça, R.C. [4024], Tocantins K000807948
Mendonça, R.C. [3889], Tocantins K000807949
Silva, M.A. [4637], Goiás K000807891
Silva, M.A. [2082], Goiás K000807897
Silva, M.A. [4040], Tocantins K000807947
Thomas, W.W. [11553], Bahia K000807853
Miralha, J.M.S. [s.n.], Amazonas K000807941
Cardoso, D. [219], Bahia K000807856
Acevedo-Rdgz, P. [8120], Amazonas K000807922
Acevedo-Rdgz, P. [8238], Amazonas K000807929
Amith, J. [0167], Mexico K000654598
Fonseca, M.R. [1280], Bahia K000807841
Kirkbride, M.C.G. [1049], Brazil K000807884
Kirkbride, M.C.G. [1318], Brazil K000807892
Kirkbride, M.C.G. [1213], Brazil K000807893
Arais Silva, M. [3593], Bahia K000807858
Arais Silva, M. [3927], Goiás K000807866
J.A .Ratter [7193], Goiás K000807883
Taxonomy class of Universidade de Brasília [1108], Brazil K000807885
Martinez, M.S. [14], Brazil K000807887
Ferreira, V. [s.n.], Brazil K000807895
Ferreira, V. [1], Brazil K000807896
Cravalho, A.M. [2194], Mato Grosso K000807903
Souza, L.R.M. [20915], Paraná K000807919
Flores, T.B. [428], Minas Gerais K000807951
Castellani, E.D. [187], São Paulo K000807952
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K001132332
Rios, P. [54], Costa Rica K000654602
Rios, P. [54], Costa Rica K000654603
Terán, F. [538], Mexico K000654600

First published in Sp. Pl.: 374 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Studart da Fonseca Vaz, A.M. (2011). Typification of names of taxa of Bauhinia L. (Leguminosae: Cercideae) from Brazil Taxon 60: 1464-1474.
  • Torres-Colín, R., Duno de Stefano, R. & Lorena Can, L. (2009). El género Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) en la península de Yucatán (México, Belice y Guatemala) Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 80: 293-301.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 285.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • De Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 386, 390 (1956).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 177 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 374 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Wunderlin, Larsen & Larsen in Adv. Leg. Syst.: 107–116 (1981).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 177 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 374 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Plants and People Africa
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