1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Ctenium Panz.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, E. U.S.A. to S. Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted annuals or perennials with wiry culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat or involute; ligule membranous, very short
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of solitary or digitate 1-sided terminal spikes
    Spikelets
    Spikelets laterally compressed in 2 rows, the perfect floret with 2 barren florets, represented, only by lemmas, below it and 1 or more reduced florets above; glumes herbaceous with hyaline margins, the lower small and lanceolate, with an awn point, the upper as long as and enclosing the florets, lanceolate, boat-shaped, strongly keeled, shortly awned from the tip and also bearing an oblique dorsal awn about as long as itself; lemmasmembranous, long awned from the back or near the tip, conspicuously ciliate, that of the fertile floret accompanied by a ciliolate palea; uppermost floret broadly linear, barren, sometimes terminating in a short awn and accompanied by a palea
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ovoid to narrowly ellipsoid.
    [KBu]

    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. & Cope, T.A. 2014. The genus Ctenium (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Chlorideae) in Africa. Kew Bulletin 69: 9541. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-014-9541-x

    Type
    Type species: Ctenium carolinianum Panz.
    Habit
    Caespitose perennial, occasionally annual-Leaf sheaths persistent or becoming fibrous at maturity; blades flat to convolute; ligule membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 1 – 7 unilateral spikes; peduncle shortly hairy
    Spikelets
    Spikelets sessile, laterally compressed, with (2) 4 – 6 (7) florets; glumes persistent at maturity; florets deciduous; lower glume membranous, 1-nerved, much shorter than the upper, muticous or mucronate to aristulate; upper glume chartaceous, 2 (3)-nerved, muticous to aristulate, with the central nerve produced as a dorsal awn; first floret barren, reduced to a lemma; second floret barren or with 1 – 2 stamens, reduced to a lemma or with a palea; third floret with a perfect flower, succeeded by 1 – 3 (4) apical barren or male florets usually reduced to their lemma, rarely the third floret succeeded by only a clavate rhachilla extension; lemmas 3-nerved, the lateral nerves near the margins, usually tufted-ciliate on the margins above, the central nerve ciliate or not, glabrous or pilose on the back between the nerves.
    Distribution
    Africa and the Neotropics.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary raceme bearing pectinate spikelets on a semiterete (crescentic in section) rhachis; leaves often aromatic.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered with the 2 lowermost florets barren, the 3rd fertile and the distal 1(3) much reduced, laterally compressed, sessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets; glumes unequal, herbaceous with hyaline margins, the inferior small and lanceolate with an awn-point, the superior as long as and enclosing the florets, lanceolate, boat-shaped, strongly keeled, shortly awned from the apex and also bearing an oblique dorsal awn about as long as itself; lemmas membranous, long-awned from the back or near the apex, conspicuously ciliate, that of the fertile floret accompanied by a ciliate palea, those of the barren florets without a palea; uppermost floret(s) broadly linear, sometimes shortly awned and accompanied by a palea.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ovoid to narrowly ellipsoid.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (18). Rhizomes absent (18), or short (1), or elongated (1). Culms erect (9/12), or geniculately ascending (3/12); 20-78.75-150 cm long; firm (17), or wiry (3). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (19), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (19); stiff (1), or firm (19); without scent (17), or aromatic (3).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (15), or paired (2), or digitate (6); erect (1), or ascending; unilateral. Rhachis semiterete (18/18); terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; 2 -rowed. Spikelets pectinate; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (19). Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 3.32-6.286-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (2/18), or pilose (15/18).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (19). Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 3.32-6.286-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (2/18), or pilose (15/18).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture (3), or firmer than fertile lemma (17); gaping. Lower glume lanceolate (14), or ovate (6); 0.25-0.348-0.5 length of upper glume; hyaline (7), or membranous (8), or herbaceous (5); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (19), or scabrous (1); glabrous (17), or pubescent (1), or hispidulous (2). Lower glume apex acute (6), or acuminate (10), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (4); muticous (17), or mucronate (3). Upper glume lanceolate (15), or elliptic (3), or ovate (2); 1.1-1.706-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (3), or herbaceous (17); with undifferentiated margins (7), or hyaline margins (13); 1-keeled; 2 -veined (9), or 3 -veined (11). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (18), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (6), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (2), or tuberculate (10); glabrous (15), or puberulous (1), or hirsute (1), or hispidulous (3). Upper glume apex acute (6), or acuminate (13), or setaceously attenuate (3); awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn dorsal, or oblique.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (1/19), or barren (19/19); with palea (1/19), or without significant palea (19/19). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (4/19), or elliptic (9/19), or oblong (5/19), or ovate (2/19); 0.5-0.7419-1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (1/19), or membranous (18/19); 3 -veined (10/10); emarginate (2/18), or truncate (1/18), or obtuse (5/18), or acute (10/18), or cuspidate (1/18); awned (19/19). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or ovate (18); membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (18), or ciliate (2). Lemma surface smooth (19), or scabrous (1); glabrous, or pilose (1); without hair tufts (19), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins eciliate (1), or ciliate (14), or villous (5). Lemma apex entire (19), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/11), or acute (10/11); muticous (1), or mucronate (1), or awned (18); 1 -awned (18/18). Principal lemma awn apical (1/19), or subapical (17/19), or dorsal (1/19). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (16), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1), or tuberculate (1); eciliate (16), or ciliolate (5). Palea surface glabrous (19), or pubescent (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1); muticous, or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (13/19), or 2 in number (7/19), or 3-4 in number (2/19); male (2/2), or barren (1/2); rudimentary (1/19), or linear (7/19), or lanceolate (2/19), or elliptic (8/19), or oblong (1/19), or ovate (1/19). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (11/19), or mucronate (3/19), or awned (7/19).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (19/19); ellipsoid (2/3), or obovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (1), or North America (4), or South America (7).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Saudi Arabia

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Benin, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Ethiopia, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, New Jersey, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Carolina, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Virginia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Saudi Arabia

    Ctenium Panz. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ideen Rev. Gräser: 38 (1813)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Clayton, W. D., Govaerts, R. Harman, K. T., Williamson, H. & Vorontsova, M. (2014). World Checklist of Poaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ accessed 12 Feb 2014.
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    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 16: 471–475 (1963), nom. conserv.
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • W. D. Clayton in K.B. 16: 471 (1963), nom. conserv.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/