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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Brazil. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and as a soil improver.

[FWTA]

Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Note
A native of S. America, cultivated as an ornamental, also subspontaneous.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 27 - 2600 m.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 27 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FTEA]

Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, decumbent or erect, branched from the base and also above, ± 15–60 cm.; stem and branches striate or sulcate, ± densely clothed with appressed white hairs at least when young.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves broadly lanceolate to oblong or elliptic-oblong, 2.5–12(–15) × 2–4(–6) cm., narrowed to an ill-defined petiole below, thinly pilose on both surfaces, the pair of leaves subtending the terminal inflorescence sessile or almost so, broadly ovate to subcordate-ovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences sessile above the uppermost pair of leaves, usually solitary, globose or depressed-globose, rarely ovoid, ± 2 cm. in diameter, whitish to pinkish or deep red; bracts deltoid-ovate, 3–5 mm., mucronate with the shortly excurrent midrib; bracteoles strongly laterally compressed, navicular, ± 8–12 mm., mucronate with the excurrent midrib, furnished from the apex almost to the base of the dorsal surface of the midrib with a broad irregularly dentate crest.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals similar to those of G. celosioides but longer (6–6.5 mm.), the outer more lanate and the inner less markedly indurate at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube subequalling the perianth, the 5 teeth deeply bilobed with obtuse lobes subequalling the anthers; pseudostaminodes absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style and stigmas together ± 2.5 mm.; stigmas divergent, subequalling or slightly longer than the style.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong-ovoid, compressed, ± 2.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds compressed-ovoid, ± 2 mm., brown, almost smooth, shining.

[FZ]

Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, decumbent or erect, branched from the base and also above, c. 15–60 cm.; stem and branches striate or sulcate, more or less densely clothed with appressed white hairs at least when young.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves broadly lanceolate to oblong or elliptic-oblong, 2.5–12 (15) × 2–4 (6) cm., narrowed to an ill-defined petiole below, thinly pilose on both surfaces, the pair of leaves subtending the terminal inflorescence sessile or almost so, broadly to subcordate-ovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences sessile above the uppermost pair of leaves, usually solitary, globose or depressed-globose, c. 2 cm. in diam., pinkish to deep red; bracts deltoid-ovate, 3–5 mm. long, mucronate with the shortly excurrent midrib; bracteoles strongly laterally compressed, navicular, c.8–12 mm., mucronate with the excurrent midrib, furnished from the apex almost to the base of the dorsal surface of the midrib with a broad, irregularly dentate crest.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals similar to those of G. celosioides but longer (6–6.5 mm.), the outer more lanate and the inner less markedly indurate at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube subequalling the perianth, the 5 teeth deeply bilobed with obtuse lobes subequalling the anthers; pseudostaminodes absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style and stigmas together c. 2.5 mm. long, stigmas divergent, subequalling or slightly longer than the style.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong-ovoid, compressed, c. 2.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds compressed-ovoid, c. 2 mm. in diam., brown, almost smooth, shining.

[UPB]
Use Environmental Soil Improvers
Live plant (in situ) - Used for food security, phytoremediation and crop rotation systems in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils (Signes-Pastor et al. 2015).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá

Introduced into:

Alabama, Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Brazil South, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Romania, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

English
Globe amaranth
Spanish
Inmortal, perpetuas, siempreviva, inmortales, manto de cristo, para todo, alumbra a las once, dondiego morado, sandiego.

Gomphrena globosa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2008 Florence [11203], French Polynesia K000512141
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6920] K001126212
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6920] K001126213
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6920] K001126214

First published in Sp. Pl.: 224 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 1-508. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. & Hallé, N. (1986). Suite du catalogue des plantes a fleurs et Fougères des iles Australes Rapa: 151-158. Direction des centres d'expérimentations nucléaires. Service mixte de contrôle biologique.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Pedersen, T.M. (2016). Flora del Paraguay 46: 1-258. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la ville de Genève.
  • Ramos Senna, L., Giulietti, A.M. & Rapini, A. (2010). Flora da Bahia: Amaranthaceae - Amaranthoideae e Gomphrenoideae Sitientibus Sérrie Ciências Biológicas 10: 3-73.
  • Serviss, B.E. & Peck, J.H. (2013). Rediscovery of Persea borbonia var. borbonia (Lauraceae), Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa (Fabaceae), and Pinus palustris (Pinaceae) in Arkansas Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 7: 841-845.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Sánchez-del Pino, I., Espadas, C. & Pool, R. (2013). Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan peninsula biotic province Phytotaxa 107: 1-74.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Urziceanu, M. & al. (2020). Updated list of non-native ornamental plants in Romania Contributii Botanice Universitatea "Babes-Bolyai" din Cluj-Napoca 55: 59-82.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1948-1954). Flora Malesiana 4: 1-631. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 75.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org
  • Signes-Pastor, A. J., Munera-Picazo, S., Burló, F., Cano-Lamadrid, M., & Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A. (2015). Phytoremediation assessment of Gomphrena globosa and Zinnia elegans grown in arsenic-contaminated hydroponic conditions as a safe and feasible alternative to be applied in arsenic-contaminated soils of the Bengal Delta. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 187(6), 387.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 1-508. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
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