1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Amaranthus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual or more rarely perennial herbs, glabrous or furnished with short and gland-like or multicellular hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, long-petiolate, simple and entire or sinuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence basically cymose, bracteate, consisting entirely of dense to lax axillary clusters or the upper clusters leafless and more or less approximate to form a lax or dense “spike” or panicle.
    Flowers
    Flowers monoecious or (not in Africa) dioecious, bibracteolate.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments (2) 3–5, free or connate at the base, membranous, those of the female flowers sometimes slightly accrescent in fruit.
    Stamens
    Stamens free, usually similar in number to the perianth segments; anthers bilocular.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 2–3.
    Ovules
    Ovule solitary, erect.
    Fruits
    Fruit a dry capsule, indehiscent, irregularly rupturing or commonly dehiscing by a circumcissile lid.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually black and shining, testa thin; embryo annular, endosperm present.
    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual or more rarely perennial herbs, glabrous or furnished with short and gland-like or multicellular hairs, dioecious (not in E. Africa) or monoecious
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, long-petiolate, simple and entire or sinuate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence basically cymose, bracteate, consisting entirely of dense to lax axillary clusters or the upper clusters leafless and ± approximate to form a lax or dense “spike” or panicle
    Flowers
    Flowers bibracteolate; perianth-segments (2–)3–5, free or connate at the base, membranous, those of ♀ slightly accrescent in fruit
    Stamens
    Stamens free, usually similar in number to the perianth-segments; anthers bilocular
    Stigma
    Stigmas 2–3; ovule solitary, erect
    Fruits
    Fruit a dry capsule, indehiscent, irregularly rupturing or commonly dehiscing by a circumscissile lid
    Seeds
    Seeds usually black and shining; testa thin; embryo annular, endosperm present.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alaska, Aldabra, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Ascension, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, British Columbia, Burundi, Cambodia, Central European Rus, Chagos Archipelago, Chita, Christmas I., Cook Is., Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Himalaya, Fiji, Finland, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Ireland, Irkutsk, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Laccadive Is., Laos, Maldives, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Phoenix Is., Poland, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Québec, Québec, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South European Russi, St.Helena, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tibet, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tuva, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Sahara, Yakutskiya

    Amaranthus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 989 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Thellung in Asch. & Grabner Synopsis 5, 1: 225–356 (1914).
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 30
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Brenan, “The genus Amaranthus in Southern Africa”, Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 47: 451–492 (1981).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 989 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 427 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 989 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0