1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Meineckia Baill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Assam, Mexico to Brazil.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or dioecious shrubs or subherbaceous undershrubs
    Indumentum
    Indumentum (when present) simple, hairs multicellular
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, distichous, petiolate, often only shortly so, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, fasciculate, the fascicles unisexual or bisexual; if unisexual, male flowers several per fascicle, female flowers usually solitary Male flowers: pedicels long, very slender; sepals 5, imbricate; petals 0; disc annular or patelliform, slightly lobed, the lobes opposite to the sepals, adnate to the calyx, at least partially so; stamens 5, with the filaments united 1/4 to almost their entire length into a slender or stout column, anthers extrorse, quadrilobate, laterally dehiscent; pistillode cylindric, entire or trifid, at the apex of the staminal column Female flowers: pedicels very long, slender, distinctly articulate near the base; sepals and disc as in the ♂ flowers; ovary smooth, glabrous, 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles slightly connate at the base, bipartite or deeply bifid, stigmas usually capitate
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels long, very slender; sepals 5, imbricate; petals 0; disc annular or patelliform, slightly lobed, the lobes opposite to the sepals, adnate to the calyx, at least partially so; stamens 5, with the filaments united 1/4 to almost their entire length into a slender or stout column, anthers extrorse, quadrilobate, laterally dehiscent; pistillode cylindric, entire or trifid, at the apex of the staminal column
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels very long, slender, distinctly articulate near the base; sepals and disc as in the ♂ flowers; ovary smooth, glabrous, 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles slightly connate at the base, bipartite or deeply bifid, stigmas usually capitate
    Fruits
    Fruits trilobate, dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci leaving a persistent columella; endocarp thinly woody
    Seeds
    Seeds often 1 per locule due to abortion, reniform, pitted, ecarunculate; endosperm copious; cotyledons broad, flat; radicle over 1/2 the length of the cotyledons, bent.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or occasionally dioecious trees or shrubs, without indumentum
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved
    Stipules
    Stipules large, foliaceous, green, sometimes persistent
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, the males solitary, geminate or fasciculate, often long-pedicellate, the females solitary, usually in the distal axils, long-pedicellate Male flowers: sepals 5, imbricate, conspicuously veined; petals 0; disc large, flat, annular-pentagonal; stamens 5, filaments free, anthers introrse, medifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; pollen very diverse; pistillode small to minute, trifid or trilobate Female flowers: sepals and disc ± as in the ♂ flowers, but somewhat larger; ovary smooth, 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, ± free or united at the base, ascending or spreading, recurved, entire or slightly bilobate, the stigmas somewhat swollen
    Male
    Male flowers: sepals 5, imbricate, conspicuously veined; petals 0; disc large, flat, annular-pentagonal; stamens 5, filaments free, anthers introrse, medifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; pollen very diverse; pistillode small to minute, trifid or trilobate
    Female
    Female flowers: sepals and disc ± as in the ♂ flowers, but somewhat larger; ovary smooth, 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, ± free or united at the base, ascending or spreading, recurved, entire or slightly bilobate, the stigmas somewhat swollen
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed, dehiscing into 3 bivalved cocci, the valves of which separate; exocarp rugulose, ultimately separating from the endocarp; endocarp thinly woody; columella persistent
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 per locule, roundly triquetrous-subreniform, foveolate-lineate or rugulose, ecarunculate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Belize, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Mexico Southeast, Nicaragua, Oman, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre

    Meineckia Baill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000186621
    Perrier de la Bâthie, J.M.H.A. [9721], Madagascar K000186731
    Lovett, J. [260], Tanzania Zimmermannia K000186568

    First published in Étude Euphorb.: 586 (1858)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: version 3, second ed. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland and Cambridge.
    • Bogner, J. & Nusbaumer, L. (2012). A new species of Carlephyton (Araceae) from northern Madagas­car with notes on the species of this genus. Willdenowia. 42(2): 209 - 217.
    • Vorontsova, M. S., Hoffmann, P., Maurin, O. & Chase, M. W. (2007). Molecular phylogenetics of tribe Poranthereae (Phyllanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Amer. J. Bot. 94: 2026 - 2040.
    • Hoffmann, P., Kathriarachchi, H. & Wurdack, K. J. (2006). A phylogenetic classi fi cation of Phyllamtheae (Malpighiales; Euphorbiaceae sensu lato). Kew Bull. 61: 37 - 53.
    • Kathriarachchi, H., Hoffmann, P., Samuel, R., Wurdack, K. J. & Chase, M. W. (2005). Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae inferred from five genes (plastid atpB, matK, ndhF, rbcL,nuclear PHYC). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 36: 112 - 134.
    • Samuel, R., Kathriarachchi, H., Hoffmann, P., Barfuss, M. H. J., Wurdack, K. J., Davis, C. C. & Chase, M. W. (2005). Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae.Evidence from plastid matK and nuclear PHYC se­ quences. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 132 - 141.
    • Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1997). Notes on African and Madagascan Euphorbiaceae. Kew Bull. 52: 171 - 176.
    • Brunel,J.F.&Roux,J.(1982). Phyllantheae de Madagascar III: une nouvelle espece du genre Meineckia. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Serie 4, Section B, Adansonia 1 - 2: 79 - 84.
    • Humbert, H. (1965). Les territoires phytogeographiques de Madagascar. Annee Biol., Ser. 3(31): 439 - 448.
    • Leandri, J. (1958). Euphorbiaceae I (Phyllanthoideae). In: H. Humbert (ed.), Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, 111eme famille: 1 - 199. Firmin-Didot, Paris.
    • Humbert, H. (1955). Description des types de vegetation. In: H. Humbert & G. Cours-Darnes (eds), Notice de la carte de Madagascar . Trav. Sect. Sci. Techn. Inst. Franc., Pondichery, Extr. Hors Ser. 6: 46 - 78.
    • Muller, J. (1866). Euphorbiaceae. In: A. P. De Candolle (ed.), Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 15(2): 189 - 1286. Victor Masson, Paris.
    • Muller, J. (1865). Euphorbiaceae. Vorlau fige Mittheilungen aus dem fur De Candolle’s Prodromus bestimmten Manuscript uber diese Familie. Linnaea. 34: 1 - 224.
    • Baillon, H. (1858). Etude generale du groupe des Euphorbiacees. Victor Masson, Paris.
    • Thiers, B. (continuously updated). Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Webster in Acta Bot. Neerl. 14: 323 (1965)
    • Etud. Gén. Euph.: 586 (1858)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0