1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Phyllanthus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or dioecious herbs, shrubs or trees of various habit, often with the stems and branches differentiated into 2 or 3 types: orthotropic long shoots of unlimited growth, short shoots of limited growth (brachyblasts) and plagiotropic leafy and/or floriferous short shoots of limited growth resembling pinnate leaves, with or without a simple indumentum, rarely with a dentritic indumentum
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves alternate, often distichous, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, usually entire, penninerved, the nerves commonly brochidodromous Leaves often of 2 types: scale-like cataphylls on the orthotropic shoots and short shoots (brachyblasts) and foliage leaves on the plagiotropic shoots and also occasionally on the orthotropic shoots
    Stipules
    Stipules of the cataphylls larger and more robust than those of the foliage leaves
    Flowers
    Flowers small, axillary, the males usually geminate or fasciculate in the axils of the lower half of the plagiotropic shoots, the females usually solitary in the upper axils Female flowers: pedicels more robust than in the ♂ flowers; sepals as in the ♂ flowers, but often larger; petals 0; disc hypogynous, thin or thick, flat or cupular, annular and entire or variously lobed or toothed, or rarely composed of separate glands; staminodes rarely present; ovary sessile or stipitate, usually 3 (–many)-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, rarely more, free or connate at the base, variously held, bifid or bilobate, the stigmas slender or swollen, usually recurved Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; sepals (4–)5–6, subequal, imbricate; petals 0; disc-glands (4–)5–6, free, alternating with the sepals, or rarely disc annular; stamens 2–6, filaments free or some or all united, either partially or completely, anthers basifixed, extrorse, variously held, the thecae parallel or convergent, longitudinally, obliquely, laterally or apically dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; sepals (4–)5–6, subequal, imbricate; petals 0; disc-glands (4–)5–6, free, alternating with the sepals, or rarely disc annular; stamens 2–6, filaments free or some or all united, either partially or completely, anthers basifixed, extrorse, variously held, the thecae parallel or convergent, longitudinally, obliquely, laterally or apically dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels more robust than in the ♂ flowers; sepals as in the ♂ flowers, but often larger; petals 0; disc hypogynous, thin or thick, flat or cupular, annular and entire or variously lobed or toothed, or rarely composed of separate glands; staminodes rarely present; ovary sessile or stipitate, usually 3 (–many)-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, rarely more, free or connate at the base, variously held, bifid or bilobate, the stigmas slender or swollen, usually recurved
    Fruits
    Fruits 3– or rarely more celled, dry and septicidally and loculicidally dehiscent or else fleshy and subindehiscent; endocarp usually crustaceous
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 per locule, usually segmentiform, triquetrous, rarely compressed-ovoid or ovoid, dorsally convex, verruculose, tuberculate, lineate, ridged or smooth, ecarunculate; testa usually thinly crustaceous; albumen fleshy; embryo straight or slightly incurved; cotyledons flat, straight or rarely flexuous
    Figures
    Fig. 2.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Monoecious or dioecious herbs, shrubs or trees of various habit, often with the shoots differentiated into 2 or 3 types: long lead shoots of unlimited growth (orthotropic shoots), short lateral shoots of potentially unlimited growth (brachyblasts) and leafy or floriferous lateral shoots of limited growth (plagiotropic shoots) which may resemble pinnate leaves or pseudoracemose inflorescences (see Tab. 8).
    Indumentum
    Indumentum simple, rarely dendritic (Asia).
    Leaves
    Leaves often scale-like (cataphylls) on the lead shoots and short shoots, normal (trophophylls) on the lateral leafy shoots and occasionally also on the lead shoots. Foliage leaves alternate, often distichous, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, the nerves usually looped.
    Stipules
    Stipules of the scale leaves larger than those of the foliage leaves.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, axillary; male flowers geminate or fasciculate, usually in the lower axils of the lateral shoots; female flowers solitary in the upper axils, or male and female flowers on leafless lateral shoots, often pendent. Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; sepals (4)5–6, subequal, imbricate; petals absent; disk glands (4)5–6, free, alternisepalous, or rarely disk annular (P.pinnatus); stamens 2–6, filaments free or some or all partially or completely united, anthers basifixed, extrorse, variously held and dehiscent, thecae parallel or convergent; pistillode absent. Female flowers: pedicels more robust than in male flowers; sepals larger than but otherwise as in male; petals absent; disk hypogynous, annular, entire or lobed, rarely the glands distinct (e.g. P. maderaspatensis); staminodes rarely present; ovary sessile or stipitate, 3(∞)-locular, ovules 2 per locule; styles 3(∞), free or united at the base, variously held, bifid or 2-lobed, rarely simple (P. ovalifolius), the stigmas usually recurved.
    Fruits
    Fruits 3(∞)-celled, dry and septicidally and loculicidally dehiscent or fleshy and subindehiscent; endocarp usually crustaceous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 per locule, usually segmentiform, triquetrous and dorsally convex, rarely ovoid (e.g. P. inflatus), tuberculate, ridged, lineate or smooth, ecarunculate; testa usually thinly crustaceous; albumen fleshy; embryo straight or slightly curved; cotyledons flat, straight or rarely flexuous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Azores, Bermuda, Canary Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Gilbert Is., Howland-Baker Is., Iran, Kazan-retto, Line Is., Madeira, Norfolk Is., Phoenix Is., Sicilia, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tuvalu

    Phyllanthus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2010 Hepper, F.N. [1986], Cameroon K000180724
    Coode, M. [4371], Mauritius 35408.000
    Ejiofor, M.C. [29343], Cameroon K000180701
    Harris, D,J, [1437], Central African Republic 63375.000
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Uttar Pradesh K001132533
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132534
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132537
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132539
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132538
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132540
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132543
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Singapore K001132546
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132547
    Russell, P. [Cat. no. s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K001132541
    Russell, P. [Cat. no. s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K001132542
    Russell, P. [Cat. no. s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K001132544
    Russell, P. [Cat. no. s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K001132545

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 981 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19C: 60 (1931).
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 692
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Müller Argoviensis in De Candolle, Prodr. 15, 2: 274 (1866).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 422 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 981 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 692 (1912)
    • G.P. 3(1): 272 (1880)
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 274 (1866)
    • Gen Pl., ed. 5: 422 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 981 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/