1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Breynia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Réunion, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to SW. Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, borne on plagiotropic shoots (leafy or floriferous lateral shoots of limited growth, see Phyllanthus).
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, the male fasciculate or solitary, usually in the proximal axils, the female solitary, usually in the distal axils. Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; calyx obconic or turbinate, calyx lobes 6, imbricate, sharply inflexed; petals absent; disk absent; stamens 3, united into a short column, anthers elongate, thecae linear, extrorse, adnate to the column, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers: pedicels sometimes capillary; calyx lobes 6, imbricate, not inflexed, usually larger than in the male flowers, accrescent; disk absent; ovary 3-locular, ovules 2 per locule; styles 3, free, short, erect, simple or bifid.
    Fruits
    Fruit ± baccate, tardily and often incompletely loculicidally dehiscent; exocarp sometimes somewhat fleshy; endocarp crustaceous.
    Seeds
    Seeds trigonous, ecarunculate; testa membranous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad; radicle long.
    Habit
    Monoecious or apparently dioecious shrubs or small trees, with or without a simple indumentum, often blackening on drying.
    Stem
    Branching phyllanthoid (see Tab. 8).
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or apparently dioecious shrubs or small trees with or without a simple indumentum, often blackening on drying
    Leaves
    Cataphylls present, as in Phyllanthus (q.v.) Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, arranged on shoots of limited growth (plagiotropic)
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, the males fasciculate or solitary in the proximal axils, the females solitary in the distal axils Female flowers: pedicels capillary or not; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, not inflexed, usually larger than those of the ♂ flower, accrescent; disc 0; ovary 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, free, short, erect, simple or bifid Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; calyx obconic or turbinate; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, the distal halves sharply inflexed with their apices almost touching the androecium; petals 0; disc 0; stamens 3, united to form a short column, anthers elongate, the thecae linear, extrorse, adnate to the column, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels often capillary; calyx obconic or turbinate; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, the distal halves sharply inflexed with their apices almost touching the androecium; petals 0; disc 0; stamens 3, united to form a short column, anthers elongate, the thecae linear, extrorse, adnate to the column, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels capillary or not; calyx-lobes 6, imbricate, not inflexed, usually larger than those of the ♂ flower, accrescent; disc 0; ovary 3-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3, free, short, erect, simple or bifid
    Fruits
    Fruit tardily and often incompletely loculicidally dehiscent; exocarp sometimes somewhat fleshy; endocarp crustaceous
    Seeds
    Seeds trigonous, ecarunculate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vanuatu, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Bolivia, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Gambia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Leeward Is., Line Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Breynia J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Johns, R.J. [8916], New Guinea 70224.000

    First published in Char. Gen. Pl.: 145 (1776)

    Accepted by

    • van Welzen, P.C., Pruesapan, K., Telford, I.R.H., Esser, H.-J. & Bruhl, J.J. (2014). Phylogenetic reconstruction prompts taxonomic changes in Sauropus, Synostemon and Breynia (Phyllanthaceae tribe Phyllantheae) Blumea 59: 77-94.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Müller Argoviensis in De Candolle, Prodr. 15, 2: 438 (1866), nom. conserv.
    • Char. Gen. Pl.: 145, t. 73 (1776).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • G.P. 3(1): 276 (1880), nom. conserv.
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 438 (1866)
    • Char. Gen. Pl.: 145, t. 73 (1776)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0