1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Acalypha L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Monoecious, or occasionally dioecious, procumbent or erect, annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, often superficially resembling certain Urticaceae.
    Indumentum
    Indumentum simple (Old World) or stellate (New World), often glandular.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate or subsessile, stipulate, sometimes stipellate, simple, crenate or serrate, palmi- or penninerved.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, axillary or both, unisexual or bisexual, spicate, racemose or paniculate.
    Flowers
    Male flowers small, shortly pedicellate, glomerulate, usually subtended by inconspicuous bracts. Female flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, solitary or 3–5 together, subtended by conspicuous accrescent foliaceous or inconspicuous bracts. Allomorphic female flowers terminal, median or basal in the inflorescences of some species, ebracteate . Female flowers: calyx lobes 3–4(5), imbricate, small; petals absent; disk absent; ovary 2–3-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles free or connate, usually laciniate, reddish and rather showy, rarely entire or bilobed. Allomorphic female flowers terminal, median or basal in the inflorescences of some species, ebracteate [as a rule, allomorphic female flowers consist of long-pedicellate or subsessile, ebracteate, 5-sepalous structures, each having only one unilocular ovary, the axis of which is turned through almost 180°, so that the single style is sub-basal, sometimes protruding between 2 of the sepals. Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later splitting into 4 valvate lobes; petals absent; disk absent; stamens usually 8 on a slightly raised receptacle, filaments free, broad, anther cells distinct, spreading or pendulous, oblong or linear, later becoming flexuous-vermiform; pistillode absent.
    Note
    As a rule, allomorphic female flowers consist of long-pedicellate or subsessile, ebracteate, 5-sepalous structures, each having only one unilocular ovary, the axis of which is turned through almost 180°, so that the single style is sub-basal, sometimes protruding between 2 of the sepals. Each flower thus produces only one single-seeded mericarp, which may or may not be provided with a dehiscence suture – see Radcliffe-Smith in Kew Bull. 28, 3: 525–529 (1974).
    Fruits
    Fruits 3-lobed, small, soon dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci. Fruits of the allomorphic flowers 1(2)-lobed.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid or subglobose, small, carunculate or not; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or rarely dioecious annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or rarely trees, of varying habit, but often superficially resembling Urtica species
    Indumentum
    Indumentum usually simple, rarely stellate (some S. American spp.), often glandular
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, usually petiolate, stipulate, elobate, often ovate and toothed, palmi- or penninerved
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences various, terminal or axillary or both, uni- or bisexual, spicate, racemose or paniculate, the ♂ inflorescences axillary, slender and catkin-like but erect, the ♀ inflorescences axillary or terminal, most often spicate, rarely racemose or paniculate, the androgynous inflorescences axillary or terminal, spicate or rarely racemose, most often ♀ at the base and ♂ above (either with few ♀’s and many ♂’s or vice versa), less often ♂ at the base and ♀ above
    Flowers
    Male flowers very small, shortly pedicellate, glomerate in small, inconspicuous bracts Female flowers either sessile and 1–3(–5) within a variously toothed or lobed accrescent bract which becomes foliaceous, or else shortly pedicellate and solitary in the axil of a small, non-accrescent bract; allomorphic ♀ flowers often terminate the inflorescences in some annual species, or may be co-axillary with normal inflorescences in some other species Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later valvately 4-partite; petals and disc 0; stamens usually 8, attached to the slightly raised receptacle, filaments free, broad, anther-thecae distinct, spreading or pendulous, oblong or linear, later becoming flexuous-vermiform; pistillode 0 Female flowers: calyx-lobes 3–4(–5), imbricate, small; petals and disc 0; ovary (2–)3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles free or sometimes connate, usually laciniate, reddish and rather showy, rarely entire or bilobed Allomorphic ♀ flowers ebracteate; calyx ± as in the normal ♀ flowers; ovary 1(–2)-locular; styles subbasal
    Male
    Male flowers very small, shortly pedicellate, glomerate in small, inconspicuous bracts Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later valvately 4-partite; petals and disc 0; stamens usually 8, attached to the slightly raised receptacle, filaments free, broad, anther-thecae distinct, spreading or pendulous, oblong or linear, later becoming flexuous-vermiform; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers either sessile and 1–3(–5) within a variously toothed or lobed accrescent bract which becomes foliaceous, or else shortly pedicellate and solitary in the axil of a small, non-accrescent bract; allomorphic ♀ flowers often terminate the inflorescences in some annual species, or may be co-axillary with normal inflorescences in some other species Female flowers: calyx-lobes 3–4(–5), imbricate, small; petals and disc 0; ovary (2–)3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles free or sometimes connate, usually laciniate, reddish and rather showy, rarely entire or bilobed Allomorphic ♀ flowers ebracteate; calyx ± as in the normal ♀ flowers; ovary 1(–2)-locular; styles subbasal
    Fruits
    Fruits of allomorphic ♀ flowers 1(–2)-lobed Fruits 3-lobed, small, soon dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid or subglobose, small, carunculate or not, testa crustaceous, albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    St.Helena

    Introduced into:

    Bulgaria, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, Hawaii, Italy, Line Is., Madeira, Marquesas, Niue, Norfolk Is., Seychelles, Tadzhikistan, Tuamotu, Turkey, Ukraine, West Siberia, Xinjiang

    Acalypha L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Harley, R.M. [28530], Brazil K001206780
    Hinton, G.B. [8622], México State K000476913
    Hinton, G.B. [8737], México State K000476914
    Hinton, G.B. [11999], Michoacán K000476915
    Hinton, G.B. [10693], Guerrero K000476916
    Hinton, G.B. [9737], Guerrero K000476917
    Hinton, G.B. [12083], Michoacán K000476918
    Hinton, G.B. [10286], Guerrero K000476919
    Hinton, G.B. [350], México State K000476920
    Hinton, G.B. [3897], México State K000476921
    Hinton, G.B. [1673], México State K000476922
    Hinton, G.B. [2697], México State K000476923
    Hinton, G.B. [5065], México State K000476924
    Hinton, G.B. [10470], Guerrero K000476925
    Hinton, G.B. [205], México State K000476926
    Hinton, G.B. [8265], México State K000476927
    Hinton, G.B. [10548], Guerrero K000476930
    Jacobs, M. [5140] 31295.000
    Trail, J.W.H. [745], Brazil K001206810
    Trail, J.W.H. [748], Brazil K001206813
    Plowman, T. [2765], Brazil K001206777
    Plowman, T. [12917], Brazil K001206786
    McWhister, J. [195], Madagascar 32189.000
    Ratter, J.A. [6436], Brazil K001206779
    Giulietti, A.M. [1669], Brazil K001206776
    Roque, N. [4515], Brazil K001206781
    Oliveira, M. [7], Brazil K001206796
    Oliveira, M. [23], Brazil K001206804
    Silva, D.C. [86], Brazil K001206801
    Figueiredo, L. [131], Brazil K001206802
    Preston, T.A. [126], Brazil K001206774
    Anderson, W.R. [36932], Brazil K001206783
    Talbot, H.F. [s.n.] K001206769
    Silva, S.B. [315], Brazil K001206778
    Krukoff, B.A. [4677], Brazil K001206808
    Lyonnet, E. [2154], Mexico K000503126
    Tessmann, G. [6135], Brazil K001206770
    Rusby, H.H. [1258], Brazil K001206784
    Gibert [70], Brazil K001206782
    Graham [s.n.], Brazil K001206815
    Guillemin [189], Brazil K001206807
    Dusén [117], Brazil K001206809
    Tschá, M. [66], Brazil K001206800
    Kirkbride, J.H. Jr. [4342], Brazil K001206775
    Forzza, R.C. [2707], Brazil K001206797
    Forzza, R.C. [2813], Brazil K001206798
    Forzza, R.C. [3005], Brazil K001206799
    Forzza, R.C. [2966], Brazil K001206803
    Gonzalez Ortega, J. [1635], Mexico K000503125
    Saint-Hilaire [5192], Brazil K001206806
    Saint-Hilaire, A. [1338], Brazil K001206805
    Boog [s.n.], Brazil K001206771
    Ferreira, A.R. [1011] K001206811
    Palmer, E.W. [331], Tamaulipas K000476928
    Palmer, E.W. [505], Tamaulipas K000476929
    Gardner [721], Brazil K001206768
    Gardner [721], Brazil K001206773
    Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001206791
    Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001206792
    Gardner [1996], Brazil K001206794
    Gardner [1996], Brazil K001206795
    Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001206816
    s.coll. [1992], Brazil K001206772
    Burchell [7513], Brazil K001206787
    Burchell [8038], Brazil K001206788
    Burchell [5938], Brazil K001206789
    Burchell [7846], Brazil K001206790
    Burchell [2956], Brazil K001206793
    Burchell [1370], Brazil K001206785
    Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K001206814
    Claussen [s.n.], Brazil K001206812
    Russell, P. [Cat. no. s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K001132528

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Sagun, V.G., Levin, G.A. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21-60.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 16: 12 (1924).
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 880
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Pax in E.P. IV. 147(16): 12 (1924)
    • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 880 (1912)
    • G.P. 3(1): 311 (1880)
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 799 (1866)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1003 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/