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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or trees, rarely herbs, producing latex when cut
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, sometimes peltate, often palmately lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Monoecious; flowers in terminal or subterminal-axillary racemes with 1–few long-pedicellate female flowers below several short-pedicellate male flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers similar, staminodes absent; ovary 3-celled, ovules solitary; styles variously dilated or lobed Male flowers: calyx campanulate or tubular, lobes 5, imbricate or contorted; petals absent; stamens 10, free, alternating with lobes of disc or glands; pistillode small or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with caruncle.
Distribution
An American genus of about 140 species.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious often glaucous and pruinose laticiferous trees or shrubs, rarely herbs.
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum, when present, simple.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, simple, sometimes peltate, entire or more usually deeply palmately 3–11-lobed or -partite; the lobes entire or lobulate, penninerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, rarely axillary, racemose or paniculate, bisexual with 1–few female flowers and several male flowers; bracts sometimes foliaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers pedicellate; buds ovoid, ellipsoid or fusiform; calyx campanulate or tubular, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricate or contorted, often pigmented; petals absent; disk deeply lobed or consisting of separate glands; stamens 10, biverticillate, free, inserted between the lobes or glands of the disk; anthers dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode small, trifid, or absent. Female flowers long-pedicellate; tepals 5, free, imbricate, caducous; petals absent; disk entire or lobulate, pigmented; ovary 3-locular with 1 ovule per loculus; styles 3, short, connate at the base, often dilated or lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits subglobose, ± smooth or longitudinally 6-winged, dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci; endocarp woody; columella persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds carunculate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Usually glaucescent and ± pruinose monoecious laticiferous shrubs or trees, rarely herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple, peltate or not, entire or more usually deeply 3–11-palmatilobed to -palmatipartite, the lobes entire or themselves lobulate, petiolate or rarely sessile; stipules small or large, sometimes leafy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences racemose or paniculate, terminal or axillary in the uppermost leaf-axils, generally composed of 1 or more long-pedicellate basal ♀ flowers and several short-pedicellate ♂ flowers; bracts small or large, sometimes leafy, entire or laciniate
sex Male
Male flowers large; calyx campanulate or tubular, 5-lobed, often pigmented, with the lobes imbricate or contorted; petals 0; stamens 10, in 2 whorls, free, inserted between the lobes or glands of the disc; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally; pistillode, when present, small, trifid, in the middle of the disc
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers large; calyx as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc hypogynous, entire or lobed; ovary trilocular, smooth or longitudinally winged; 1 ovule per locule; styles shortly connate at the base, variously dilated and lobed Male flowers large; calyx campanulate or tubular, 5-lobed, often pigmented, with the lobes imbricate or contorted; petals 0; stamens 10, in 2 whorls, free, inserted between the lobes or glands of the disc; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally; pistillode, when present, small, trifid, in the middle of the disc
sex Female
Female flowers large; calyx as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc hypogynous, entire or lobed; ovary trilocular, smooth or longitudinally winged; 1 ovule per locule; styles shortly connate at the base, variously dilated and lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits septicidally dehiscent into 3 bivalved cocci, smooth or longitudinally winged
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds carunculate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons flat, broad.

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[FSOM]
Use
Other species are grown as sources of rubber. The root-tubers of some species are very important as a staple food crop in many areas of the tropics

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Arkansas, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Burkina, Cambodia, Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Cook Is., Cuba, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Marianas, Marquesas, Mississippi, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Niue, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Society Is., Sudan, Sulawesi, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zaïre

Manihot Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Lewis, G.P. [1097], Brazil 56411.000

First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Pax & K. Hoffm. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19C: 174 (1931).
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 839

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Müller Argoviensis in De Candolle, Prodr. 15, 2: 1057 (1866).
  • Gard. Dict. abr. ed. 4, 2 (1754).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. G. Gilbert [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • D. Rogers & Appan, Fl. Neotrop., Monogr. No. 13 (1973)
  • in E.P. IV. 147(2): 21 (1910)
  • Pax in E. & P. Pf. 3(5): 79 (1890)
  • G.P. 3(1): 306 (1880)
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1057 (1866)
  • Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4, 2 (1754)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/