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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics to N. America.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or sometimes dioecious trees, shrubs or, more rarely herbs or lianes, with an indumentum of stellate hairs and/or peltate scales
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple, usually with 2 sessile or stalked discoid glands at the base of the blade, usually with stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences racemose or spicate, rarely paniculate, with the female flowers usually below the males, or unisexual-
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), free; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, rarely absent; stamens central, 5–many, free Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in males; petals often smaller than in males, or absent; disc annular or composed of separate glands, or rudimentary; ovary (2–)3(–4)-celled, with 1 ovule per cell; styles 1 to several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits dehiscing septicidally into 3 cocci, or loculicidally into 3 valves, or sometimes drupaceous or berry-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually smooth, carunculate.
Distribution
Genus of over 1100 species throughout the tropics.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or sometimes dioecious trees or shrubs (or herbs or lianes outside the Flora Zambesiaca area) with a stellate and/or lepidote indumentum.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, sometimes subopposite or ± whorled, stipulate, petiolate, with 2 or more sessile or stipitate discoid glands at the petiole apex or the lamina base, simple, entire, toothed or lobed, penninerved or palminerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences usually terminal, racemose, androgynous or unisexual; bracts small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers shortly pedicellate; buds subglobose; sepals (4)5(6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals (4)5(6), free; disk glands opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy; stamens 5–many, free, filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; receptacle usually pilose; pistillode absent. Female flowers pedicellate; sepals generally persistent, slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller than in male flowers, sometimes replaced by tufts of hairs or absent; staminodes sometimes present; disk annular, or of separate glands, or vestigial; ovary 2(3)4-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, or multifid or multipartite.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits septicidally dehiscent into 3 bivalved cocci, loculicidally dehiscent into 3 valves, irregularly frangent (breaking up) or drupaceous and indehiscent; endocarp woody or crustaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds carunculate; testa woody or crustaceous; albumen fleshy, copious; embryo straight; cotyledons broad and flat.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or more rarely dioecious trees, shrubs or, more rarely, herbs or lianes, with an indumentum of stellate hairs or peltate scales, separately or in combination
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or sometimes subopposite or subverticillate on the same shoot, simple, entire or toothed, rarely lobed (not in E. Africa), penninerved or 3–many-nerved from the base, petiolate, usually with two (sometimes more) sessile or stalked discoid glands at the base of the blade, generally stipulate, often turning bright yellow or red when dying
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, sometimes axillary, racemose or spicate, with the flowers sometimes in fascicles or glomerules on the spike, rarely paniculate, androgynous, with the ♀ flowers usually below the ♂’s, or unisexual; bracts small, caducous or persistent
sex Male
Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), rarely more, free, equalling or shorter than (rarely longer than) the sepals; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy, rarely 0; stamens central, 5–many, free, inserted on a usually pilose receptacle, the filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, the anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in ♂, generally persistent and slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller and/or narrower than in ♂, or vestigial or 0, rarely replaced by tufts of hairs; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular or composed of separate glands, sometimes scarcely developed; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), valvate or imbricate, ± equal; petals usually present, (4–)5(–6), rarely more, free, equalling or shorter than (rarely longer than) the sepals; disc-glands small, opposite the sepals, free or fused, fleshy, rarely 0; stamens central, 5–many, free, inserted on a usually pilose receptacle, the filaments inflexed in bud, later erect, the anthers pendulous in bud, later erect, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
sex Female
Female flowers: sepals often narrower than in ♂, generally persistent and slightly accrescent, equal or unequal; petals often smaller and/or narrower than in ♂, or vestigial or 0, rarely replaced by tufts of hairs; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular or composed of separate glands, sometimes scarcely developed; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 1–several times bifid or bipartite, rarely laciniate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits dehiscent, septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, or loculicidally into 3 valves, or sometimes drupaceous or berry-like, and then subindehiscent; endocarp woody or crustaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds smooth or more rarely rugulose, generally triangular-convex in transverse section, carunculate, with a woody or crustaceous testa and abundant fleshy albumen; embryo straight; cotyledons broad and flat.

Native to:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Chagos Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau, Japan, Ontario, Rodrigues, Victoria, West Himalaya

Croton L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2014 s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Singapore K001132972
Hinton, G.B. [3327], México State K000476732
Hinton, G.B. [3327], México State K000476733
Hinton, G.B. [10304], Guerrero K000476734
Hinton, G.B. [944], México State K000476735
Hinton, G.B. [7860], Guerrero K000476737
Hinton, G.B. [8757], México State K000476739
Hinton, G.B. [12690], Michoacán K000476740
Hinton, G.B. [11818], Michoacán K000476741
Hinton, G.B. [8979], México State K000476742
Hinton, G.B. [11978], Michoacán K000476743
Hinton, G.B. [13006], Michoacán K000476744
Hinton, G.B. [4348], México State K000476745
Hinton, G.B. [10334], Guerrero K000476746
Hinton, G.B. [4293], México State K000476747
Hinton, G.B. [6118], Guerrero K000476748
Hinton, G.B. [1200], México State K000476736
Hinton, G.B. [10520], Guerrero K000476738
Hinton, G.B. [4268], México State K000476749
Purpus, C.A. [13049], Mexico K000503090
Andrieux, G. [110], Mexico K000503088
Andrieux, G. [109], Mexico K000503089
Langlassé, E. [1020], Mexico K000503094
Langlassé, E. [824], Mexico K000503095
Orcutt, C.R. [4515], Mexico K000503093
Orcutt, C.R. [3305], Mexico K000503092
Orcutt, C.R. [3303], Mexico K000503091
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132963
Palmer, E.W. [390], Coahuila K000476750
Palmer, E.W. [63], Tamaulipas K000476752
Palmer, E.W. [93], Jalisco K000476754
Palmer, E.W. [288], Chihuahua K000476755
Palmer, E.W. [1147], Mexico K000476751
Palmer, E.W. [1138 1/2], Mexico K000476753
Brunt, M.A. [273], Cameroon K000181037
Lindeman, J.C. [6163], Brazil Julocroton K001210360
Arbo, M.M. [3236], Brazil Julocroton K001210363
Folli, D.A. [1758], Brazil Julocroton K001210359
Tweedie, J. [153], Argentina Julocroton K001210362
Palacios-Cuezzo [1885], Brazil Julocroton K001210361

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Sordé, R.C. & al. (2019). Taxonomic synopsis of Croton section Geiseleria (Euphorbiaceae) in Brazil, including description of a new species Phytotaxa 417: 1-105.
  • Caruzo, M.B.R. & Cordeiro, I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Croton section Cleodora (Euphorbiaceae) Phytotaxa 121: 1-41.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Pax & K. Hoffm. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19C: 83 (1931).
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 746

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753), pro parte

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 746 (1912)
  • G.P. 3(1): 293 (1880)
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 512 (1866)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 436 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 1004 (1753), pro parte,

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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