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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.
Euphorbia pulcherrima

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious (in Somalia, rarely dioecious elsewhere) trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes succulent and unarmed or spiny; latex often extremely caustic. Roots fibrous, or thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite or whorled, often stipulate, subtended by spiny outgrowths on some succulent species
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with cyathia solitary or in cymes, the cymes terminal or axillary, often in false umbels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts paired, often leaf-like, sometimes brightly coloured and showy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucres with (1–)4–5(–8) glands around the rim alternating with 5 fringed lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower subsessile, or usually with the pedicel elongating and recurved in fruit, but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the 3-celled ovary, seldom 3-lobed; styles 3, partly united Male flowers in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes, bracteolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, sometimes fleshy but hardening at maturity, loculicidally and septicidally dehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with or without a caruncle.
Distribution
One of the largest genera of flowering plants, with over 2000 species distributed world-wide in temperate and tropical zones.
Note
About 1300 species are herbaceous. The other tree, shrubby and succulent species are confined almost entirely to the tropics and subtropics, with most of the succulents occurring in the drier regions of the African continent (including Madagascar).

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent and unarmed or spiny, with a milky usually caustic latex, monoecious (elsewhere rarely dioecious)
Morphology Roots
Roots fibrous, or thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, often stipulate, subtended by spiny outgrowths on some succulent species
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with cyathia in simple, dichotomous or umbellate terminal or axillary cymes; bracts paired, often leaf-like, sometimes brightly coloured and showy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucres with (1-)4–5(–8) glands around the rim alternating with 5 fringed lobes
sex Male
Male flowers in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes, bracteolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel usually elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, seldom 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, partly united Male flowers in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes, bracteolate
sex Female
Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel usually elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, seldom 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, partly united
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, sometimes fleshy but becoming woody at maturity, loculicidally and septicidally dehiscent (a regma)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with or without a caruncle.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent and unarmed or spiny, with a milky usually caustic latex, monoecious, rarely dioecious.
Morphology Roots
Roots fibrous, or thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, alternate or verticillate, often stipulate, subtended by spiny outgrowths in some succulent species.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with cyathia in simple, dichotomous or umbellate terminal or axillary cymes; bracts paired, often leaf-like.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucres with (1)4–5(8) nectiferous glands around the rim alternating with 5 fringed lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely 3-lobed; styles partly united. Male flowers bracteolate, in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule sometimes fleshy but becoming woody at maturity, dehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with or without a caruncle.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees with woody or fleshy branches and a milky latex, monoecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves shortly petiolate, entire, with small stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with cyathia in dichotomous axillary or terminal cymes; bracts paired, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucres with 5 unequal lobes and 2, 4 or 6 glands enclosed within an adaxial spur-like extension of the involucre formed from 4 gland appendages, often brightly coloured
sex Male
Male flowers in 5 groups, usually bracteolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular, with 1-pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, connate, with bifid stigmas Male flowers in 5 groups, usually bracteolate
sex Female
Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular, with 1-pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, connate, with bifid stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3-lobed, usually a dehiscent capsule, occasionally indehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds smooth or tuberculate, without a caruncle.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees with woody or fleshy branches and a milky latex, monoecious.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves shortly petiolate, entire, with small stipules.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with cyathia in dichotomous axillary or terminal cymes; bracts paired, persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucres with 5 unequal lobes and 2, 4 or 6 glands enclosed within an adaxial spur-like extension of the involucre formed from 4 gland appendages, often brightly coloured.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, connate, with bifid stigmas. Male flowers in 5 groups, usually bracteolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3-lobed, usually a dehiscent capsule, occasionally indehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds smooth or tuberculate, without a caruncle.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or trees with subfleshy cylindrical branches and copious caustic milky latex, monoecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fleshy, with stipules modified as small but ± conspicuous dark brown glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with sessile cyathia in dichotomously branching axillary cymes, usually crowded into pseudo-umbels (pseudumbels) at the branch apices; bracts paired, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucres with an entire (rarely lobed) spreading furrowed glandular rim and 5 fringed lobes
sex Male
Male flowers in 5 groups, with stamens shortly exserted from the involucre, bracteoles included
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower shortly pedicellate, the pedicel elongating slightly in fruit; perianth reduced to a 3-lobed rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base, with bifid stigmas Male flowers in 5 groups, with stamens shortly exserted from the involucre, bracteoles included
sex Female
Female flower shortly pedicellate, the pedicel elongating slightly in fruit; perianth reduced to a 3-lobed rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base, with bifid stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 3-lobed capsule, dehiscent (a regma)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with a sessile, often rudimentary caruncle.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or trees with copious caustic milky latex, monoecious.
Morphology Stem
Branches cylindrical, ± fleshy and marked with large elliptic leaf scars.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fleshy, with stipules modified as small but ± conspicuous dark brown glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with sessile cyathia in dichotomously branching axillary cymes, usually crowded into pseudo-umbels (pseudumbels) at the branch tips; bracts paired, persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia with numerous male flowers in 5 groups surrounding a solitary female flower and all enclosed within a cup-like involucre.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucres with an entire or occasionally notched spreading furrowed glandular rim surrounding 5 fringed lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers in 5 groups, with stamens shortly exserted from the involucre, bracteoles included. Female flower shortly pedicellate, the pedicel elongating slightly in fruit; perianth reduced to a 3-lobed rim below the ovary; styles 3, joined at the base, with bifid stigmas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3-lobed, dehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with a sessile, often rudimentary caruncle.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Trees with fleshy spiny branches and copious caustic milky latex, monoecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fleshy, the petiole subtended by a pair of short spines and vestigial stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence with cyathia in simple or dichotomous axillary cymes; bracts paired, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucres with 5 spreading glands around the rim and 5 alternating lobes with denticulate margins
sex Male
Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower subsessile or shortly pedicellate in fruit; perianth entirely absent with the ovary merging into the pedicel; ovary 3-locular with thickened fleshy walls and 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles very short with thickened bifid stigmas Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate
sex Female
Female flower subsessile or shortly pedicellate in fruit; perianth entirely absent with the ovary merging into the pedicel; ovary 3-locular with thickened fleshy walls and 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles very short with thickened bifid stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit drupaceous, with a thick fleshy exocarp and woody endocarp; endocarp with a pore at the base, and each locule marked with a shallow longitudinal groove and a pore between the grooves near the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds without a caruncle.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Small trees, shrubs or perennial herbs, sometimes geophytic, with ± fleshy or succulent stems and branches and with caustic milky latex, monoecious; roots thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fleshy, with stipules apparently absent, or modified as glands or spines
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, with sessile cyathia in dichotomously branching cymes, rarely solitary; bracts paired, persistent, free, or partly united along one edge to form a bract-cup behind and enveloping the involucre
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucres with glands forming an entire rim notched on the lower side, surrounding 5 fringed lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate, scarcely exserted Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely shortly 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base and with bifid stigmas
sex Male
Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate, scarcely exserted
sex Female
Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely shortly 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base and with bifid stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 3-lobed capsule, exserted through the notch in the glandular rim, dehiscent (a regma)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong, with a cap-like pale yellow caruncle, rarely ecarunculate.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Small trees, shrubs or perennial herbs, often geophytic (with aerial parts dying back after the growing season) in the Flora Zambesiaca area, with fleshy or succulent stems and branches and with caustic milky latex, monoecious; roots thick and fleshy, often tuberous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sometimes fleshy, glabrous or hairy, with stipules apparently absent, or occasionally modified as glands or spines.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes axillary, with sessile cyathia branching dichotomously, or cyathia rarely solitary; bracts persistent, paired, free, or partly united along the ventral margin to form an incomplete bract-cup and enveloping the involucre.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Cyathia
Cyathia with numerous male flowers in 5 groups surrounding a solitary female flower and all enclosed within a cup-like involucre.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucres with glands fused to form an entire rim deeply notched on the dorsal side, and surrounding the 5 fringed lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate, scarcely exserted. Female flower pedicellate; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely shortly 3-lobed; styles 3, joined at the base, stigmas bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule exserted through the notch in the glandular rim, dehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with or without a caruncle.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, France, Free State, French Guiana, Føroyar, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alaska, Falkland Is., Howland-Baker Is., Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Line Is., Magadan, Marcus I., Newfoundland, Ogasawara-shoto, Phoenix Is., Tristan da Cunha, Yukon

Euphorbia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2000 Hinton, G.B. [5251], México State K000476720
Bally, J., Kenya 16761.000
Meikle, R.D. [814], Nigeria 22166.000
McWhirter, J.H. [135], Madagascar 31905.000
McWhirter, J.H. [166], Madagascar 32108.000
McWhirter, J. [148], Madagascar 32199.000
Greenway, P.J. [6657] 4142.000
Whellan, J. [33972], Zimbabwe 4151.000
Collenette, I.S. [6877], Saudi Arabia 53235.000
Collenette [6832], Saudi Arabia 55955.000
Collenette, I.S. [7455], Saudi Arabia 56027.000
Collenette, J.S. [8751], Djibouti 58346.000
Collenette, J.S. [8752], Djibouti 58728.000
Pennington, T.D. [13986a], Ecuador 58759.000
Pennington, T.D. [13962], Ecuador 58765.000
Collenette, J.S. [8436], Oman 62841.000
DuPuy, B. [MB 404], Madagascar 63480.000
Nelson, E.W. [6455], Mexico K000503080
Coulter [1457], Mexico K000503077
Nelson, E.W. [6126], Mexico K000503081
Andrieux, G. [104], Mexico K000503083
Spruce, R. [6529], Ecuador K000201873
Spruce, R. [6531], Ecuador K000201874
Hinton, G.B. [2715], México State K000476723
Hinton, G.B. [5897], México State K000476724
Palmer, E.W. [462], Tamaulipas K000476711
Palmer, E.W. [121], San Luis Potosí K000476717
Palmer, E.W. [122], San Luis Potosí K000476719
Hinton, G.B. [4580], México State K000476728
Palmer, E.W. [296], Durango K000476713
Eiten, G. [10313], Brazil K001210998
Taylor [1491], Brazil K001211020
s.coll. [1674], Brazil K001211010
Nelson, E.W. [6249], Mexico K000503076
Galeotti, H.G. [3767], Mexico K000503078
Palmer, E.W. [292], Tamaulipas K000476714
Fisher, W.H. [345], Brazil K001211014
Spruce, R. [6528], Peru K000201872
Palmer, E.W. [498], Coahuila K000476715
Glaziou, A.F.M. [16331] K001211004
Palmer, E.W. [806], San Luis Potosí K000476709
Cavalcante, T.B. [9691], Brazil K001211019
Palmer, E.W. [319], Zacatecas K000476718
Spruce, R. [6353], Ecuador K000201866
André, E. [K/1633] K001211011
Palmer, E.W. [883], Baja California K000476712
Palmer, E.W. [267], Chihuahua K000476707
Sales, M.F. [519], Brazil K001211016
Hatschbach, G. [64841], Brazil K001211000
Hinton, G.B. [1637], México State K000476727
Hinton, G.B. [4770], México State K000476730
Palmer, E.W. [499], Coahuila K000476716
Rico, L. [1969], Dominican Republic K000478741
Langlassé, E. [512], Mexico K000503084
Palmer, E.W. [813], San Luis Potosí K000476708
Palmer, E.W. [428], Tamaulipas K000476710
Tweedie, J. [s.n.] K001211009
Hinton, G.B. [1772], México State K000476729
Burchell [9065], Brazil K001211012
Glaziou, A. [8318], Brazil K001211005
Andrieux, G. [105], Mexico K000503082
Hinton, G.B. [15771], Michoacán K000476731
Irwin, H.S. [20376], Brazil K001211001
Robert, A. [881], Brazil K001211008
Glaziou, A. [15409], Brazil K001211003
Spruce, R. [6353], Ecuador K000201867
Heringer, E.P. [6349], Brazil K001211021
Nelson, E.W. [6176], Mexico K000503079
Heringer, E.P. [14134], Brazil K001210999
Eiten, G. [6557], Brazil K001211013
Fisher, V.H. [420], Brazil K001211015
Hinton, G.B. [8623], México State K000476726
Robert, A. [745], Brazil K001211006
Hinton, G.B. [11285], Guerrero K000476725
Glaziou, A. [22088], Brazil K001211007
Silva, B.R. [1440], Brazil K001211017
Burchell [5531], Brazil K001211002
Lobão, A.Q. [172], Brazil K001211018
Hinton, G.B. [3112], México State K000476722
Faulkner, H. [K.407], Mozambique Desmonema 15083.000
Faulkner, H. [K.407], Mozambique Desmonema 17651.000

First published in Sp. Pl.: 450 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Bruyns, P.V. (2012). Nomenclature and typification of southern African species of Euphorbia Bothalia 42: 217-245.
  • Geltman, D. (2008 publ. 2009). Synopsis of Euphorbia L. section Chamaebuxus Lázaro (Euphorbiaceae) Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 40: 109-158.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 470.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3, 1: 258 (1880).
  • Boissier in de Candolle, Prodr. 15, 2: 7 (1862).
  • F.C. 5, 2: 222 (1915).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 208 (1754).
  • N.E. Brown in F.T.A. 6, 1: 470 (1911)
  • Pax & K. Hoffmann in Engler, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 19c: 208 (1931).
  • Radcliffe-Smith, Gen. Euphorbiacearum: 405 (2001).
  • S. Carter in F.T.E.A., Euphorbiaceae, part 2: 409 (1988).
  • Sp. Pl.: 450 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by S. Carter [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 78 (1862)
  • G.P. 3(1): 258 (1800)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 208 (1754)
  • N.E. Br. in F.T.A. 6(1): 470 (1911)
  • Pax in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 19C: 208 (1931)
  • Sp. Pl.: 450 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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