1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Euphorbia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent and unarmed or spiny, with a milky usually caustic latex, monoecious (elsewhere rarely dioecious)
    Roots
    Roots fibrous, or thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, often stipulate, subtended by spiny outgrowths on some succulent species
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with cyathia in simple, dichotomous or umbellate terminal or axillary cymes; bracts paired, often leaf-like, sometimes brightly coloured and showy
    Bracts
    Involucres with (1-)4–5(–8) glands around the rim alternating with 5 fringed lobes
    Male
    Male flowers in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes, bracteolate
    Flowers
    Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel usually elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, seldom 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, partly united Male flowers in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes, bracteolate
    Female
    Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel usually elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, seldom 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, partly united
    Fruits
    Fruit a capsule, sometimes fleshy but becoming woody at maturity, loculicidally and septicidally dehiscent (a regma)
    Seeds
    Seeds with or without a caruncle.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent and unarmed or spiny, with a milky usually caustic latex, monoecious, rarely dioecious.
    Roots
    Roots fibrous, or thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, alternate or verticillate, often stipulate, subtended by spiny outgrowths in some succulent species.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with cyathia in simple, dichotomous or umbellate terminal or axillary cymes; bracts paired, often leaf-like.
    Involucre
    Involucres with (1)4–5(8) nectiferous glands around the rim alternating with 5 fringed lobes.
    Flowers
    Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely 3-lobed; styles partly united. Male flowers bracteolate, in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes.
    Fruits
    Capsule sometimes fleshy but becoming woody at maturity, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds with or without a caruncle.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees with woody or fleshy branches and a milky latex, monoecious
    Leaves
    Leaves shortly petiolate, entire, with small stipules
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with cyathia in dichotomous axillary or terminal cymes; bracts paired, persistent
    Bracts
    Involucres with 5 unequal lobes and 2, 4 or 6 glands enclosed within an adaxial spur-like extension of the involucre formed from 4 gland appendages, often brightly coloured
    Male
    Male flowers in 5 groups, usually bracteolate
    Flowers
    Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular, with 1-pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, connate, with bifid stigmas Male flowers in 5 groups, usually bracteolate
    Female
    Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular, with 1-pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, connate, with bifid stigmas
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed, usually a dehiscent capsule, occasionally indehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds smooth or tuberculate, without a caruncle.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees with woody or fleshy branches and a milky latex, monoecious.
    Leaves
    Leaves shortly petiolate, entire, with small stipules.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with cyathia in dichotomous axillary or terminal cymes; bracts paired, persistent.
    Involucre
    Involucres with 5 unequal lobes and 2, 4 or 6 glands enclosed within an adaxial spur-like extension of the involucre formed from 4 gland appendages, often brightly coloured.
    Flowers
    Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, connate, with bifid stigmas. Male flowers in 5 groups, usually bracteolate.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed, usually a dehiscent capsule, occasionally indehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds smooth or tuberculate, without a caruncle.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees with subfleshy cylindrical branches and copious caustic milky latex, monoecious
    Leaves
    Leaves fleshy, with stipules modified as small but ± conspicuous dark brown glands
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with sessile cyathia in dichotomously branching axillary cymes, usually crowded into pseudo-umbels (pseudumbels) at the branch apices; bracts paired, persistent
    Bracts
    Involucres with an entire (rarely lobed) spreading furrowed glandular rim and 5 fringed lobes
    Male
    Male flowers in 5 groups, with stamens shortly exserted from the involucre, bracteoles included
    Flowers
    Female flower shortly pedicellate, the pedicel elongating slightly in fruit; perianth reduced to a 3-lobed rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base, with bifid stigmas Male flowers in 5 groups, with stamens shortly exserted from the involucre, bracteoles included
    Female
    Female flower shortly pedicellate, the pedicel elongating slightly in fruit; perianth reduced to a 3-lobed rim below the ovary; ovary 3-locular with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base, with bifid stigmas
    Fruits
    Fruit a 3-lobed capsule, dehiscent (a regma)
    Seeds
    Seeds with a sessile, often rudimentary caruncle.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees with copious caustic milky latex, monoecious.
    Stem
    Branches cylindrical, ± fleshy and marked with large elliptic leaf scars.
    Leaves
    Leaves fleshy, with stipules modified as small but ± conspicuous dark brown glands.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with sessile cyathia in dichotomously branching axillary cymes, usually crowded into pseudo-umbels (pseudumbels) at the branch tips; bracts paired, persistent.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia with numerous male flowers in 5 groups surrounding a solitary female flower and all enclosed within a cup-like involucre.
    Involucre
    Involucres with an entire or occasionally notched spreading furrowed glandular rim surrounding 5 fringed lobes.
    Flowers
    Male flowers in 5 groups, with stamens shortly exserted from the involucre, bracteoles included. Female flower shortly pedicellate, the pedicel elongating slightly in fruit; perianth reduced to a 3-lobed rim below the ovary; styles 3, joined at the base, with bifid stigmas.
    Fruits
    Capsule 3-lobed, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds with a sessile, often rudimentary caruncle.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Trees with fleshy spiny branches and copious caustic milky latex, monoecious
    Leaves
    Leaves fleshy, the petiole subtended by a pair of short spines and vestigial stipules
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with cyathia in simple or dichotomous axillary cymes; bracts paired, persistent
    Bracts
    Involucres with 5 spreading glands around the rim and 5 alternating lobes with denticulate margins
    Male
    Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate
    Flowers
    Female flower subsessile or shortly pedicellate in fruit; perianth entirely absent with the ovary merging into the pedicel; ovary 3-locular with thickened fleshy walls and 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles very short with thickened bifid stigmas Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate
    Female
    Female flower subsessile or shortly pedicellate in fruit; perianth entirely absent with the ovary merging into the pedicel; ovary 3-locular with thickened fleshy walls and 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles very short with thickened bifid stigmas
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, with a thick fleshy exocarp and woody endocarp; endocarp with a pore at the base, and each locule marked with a shallow longitudinal groove and a pore between the grooves near the apex
    Seeds
    Seeds without a caruncle.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Small trees, shrubs or perennial herbs, sometimes geophytic, with ± fleshy or succulent stems and branches and with caustic milky latex, monoecious; roots thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous
    Leaves
    Leaves fleshy, with stipules apparently absent, or modified as glands or spines
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, with sessile cyathia in dichotomously branching cymes, rarely solitary; bracts paired, persistent, free, or partly united along one edge to form a bract-cup behind and enveloping the involucre
    Bracts
    Involucres with glands forming an entire rim notched on the lower side, surrounding 5 fringed lobes
    Flowers
    Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate, scarcely exserted Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely shortly 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base and with bifid stigmas
    Male
    Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate, scarcely exserted
    Female
    Female flower pedicellate, with the perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely shortly 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, joined at the base and with bifid stigmas
    Fruits
    Fruit a 3-lobed capsule, exserted through the notch in the glandular rim, dehiscent (a regma)
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong, with a cap-like pale yellow caruncle, rarely ecarunculate.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Small trees, shrubs or perennial herbs, often geophytic (with aerial parts dying back after the growing season) in the Flora Zambesiaca area, with fleshy or succulent stems and branches and with caustic milky latex, monoecious; roots thick and fleshy, often tuberous.
    Leaves
    Leaves sometimes fleshy, glabrous or hairy, with stipules apparently absent, or occasionally modified as glands or spines.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary, with sessile cyathia branching dichotomously, or cyathia rarely solitary; bracts persistent, paired, free, or partly united along the ventral margin to form an incomplete bract-cup and enveloping the involucre.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia with numerous male flowers in 5 groups surrounding a solitary female flower and all enclosed within a cup-like involucre.
    Involucre
    Involucres with glands fused to form an entire rim deeply notched on the dorsal side, and surrounding the 5 fringed lobes.
    Flowers
    Male flowers in 5 groups, bracteolate, scarcely exserted. Female flower pedicellate; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely shortly 3-lobed; styles 3, joined at the base, stigmas bifid.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted through the notch in the glandular rim, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds with or without a caruncle.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, France, Free State, French Guiana, Føroyar, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Falkland Is., Howland-Baker Is., Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Line Is., Magadan, Marcus I., Ogasawara-shoto, Phoenix Is., Prince Edward I., Tristan da Cunha, Yukon

    Euphorbia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Hinton, G.B. [5251], México State K000476720
    Greenway, P.J. [6657] 4142.000
    Meikle, R.D. [814], Nigeria 22166.000
    Hinton, G.B. [2715], México State K000476723
    Hinton, G.B. [5897], México State K000476724
    Hinton, G.B. [11285], Guerrero K000476725
    Hinton, G.B. [8623], México State K000476726
    Hinton, G.B. [1637], México State K000476727
    Hinton, G.B. [4770], México State K000476730
    Hinton, G.B. [15771], Michoacán K000476731
    Hinton, G.B. [3112], México State K000476722
    Hinton, G.B. [4580], México State K000476728
    Hinton, G.B. [1772], México State K000476729
    Bally, J., Kenya 16761.000
    McWhirter, J.H. [135], Madagascar 31905.000
    McWhirter, J.H. [166], Madagascar 32108.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13986a], Ecuador 58759.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13962], Ecuador 58765.000
    Collenette, I.S. [6877], Saudi Arabia 53235.000
    Collenette, I.S. [7455], Saudi Arabia 56027.000
    Taylor [1491], Brazil K001211020
    Collenette [6832], Saudi Arabia 55955.000
    Hatschbach, G. [64841], Brazil K001211000
    Rico, L. [1969], Dominican Republic K000478741
    McWhirter, J. [148], Madagascar 32199.000
    Whellan, J. [33972], Zimbabwe 4151.000
    Collenette, J.S. [8751], Djibouti 58346.000
    Collenette, J.S. [8752], Djibouti 58728.000
    Collenette, J.S. [8436], Oman 62841.000
    DuPuy, B. [MB 404], Madagascar 63480.000
    Spruce, R. [6353], Ecuador K000201866
    Spruce, R. [6353], Ecuador K000201867
    Spruce, R. [6528], Peru K000201872
    Spruce, R. [6529], Ecuador K000201873
    Spruce, R. [6531], Ecuador K000201874
    Irwin, H.S. [20376], Brazil K001211001
    Sales, M.F. [519], Brazil K001211016
    Heringer, E.P. [14134], Brazil K001210999
    Heringer, E.P. [6349], Brazil K001211021
    Eiten, G. [10313], Brazil K001210998
    Eiten, G. [6557], Brazil K001211013
    Galeotti, H.G. [3767], Mexico K000503078
    Andrieux, G. [105], Mexico K000503082
    Andrieux, G. [104], Mexico K000503083
    Robert, A. [745], Brazil K001211006
    Robert, A. [881], Brazil K001211008
    Coulter [1457], Mexico K000503077
    André, E. [K/1633] K001211011
    Langlassé, E. [512], Mexico K000503084
    Tweedie, J. [s.n.] K001211009
    Nelson, E.W. [6249], Mexico K000503076
    Nelson, E.W. [6455], Mexico K000503080
    Nelson, E.W. [6176], Mexico K000503079
    Nelson, E.W. [6126], Mexico K000503081
    Cavalcante, T.B. [9691], Brazil K001211019
    Silva, B.R. [1440], Brazil K001211017
    Palmer, E.W. [267], Chihuahua K000476707
    Palmer, E.W. [428], Tamaulipas K000476710
    Palmer, E.W. [462], Tamaulipas K000476711
    Palmer, E.W. [292], Tamaulipas K000476714
    Palmer, E.W. [498], Coahuila K000476715
    Palmer, E.W. [499], Coahuila K000476716
    Palmer, E.W. [121], San Luis Potosí K000476717
    Palmer, E.W. [319], Zacatecas K000476718
    Palmer, E.W. [122], San Luis Potosí K000476719
    Palmer, E.W. [813], San Luis Potosí K000476708
    Palmer, E.W. [806], San Luis Potosí K000476709
    Palmer, E.W. [883], Baja California K000476712
    Palmer, E.W. [296], Durango K000476713
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [16331] K001211004
    Glaziou, A. [15409], Brazil K001211003
    Glaziou, A. [8318], Brazil K001211005
    Glaziou, A. [22088], Brazil K001211007
    Fisher, W.H. [345], Brazil K001211014
    Lobão, A.Q. [172], Brazil K001211018
    s.coll. [1674], Brazil K001211010
    Burchell [5531], Brazil K001211002
    Burchell [9065], Brazil K001211012
    Fisher, V.H. [420], Brazil K001211015
    Faulkner, H. [K.407], Mozambique Desmonema 15083.000
    Faulkner, H. [K.407], Mozambique Desmonema 17651.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 450 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Bruyns, P.V. (2012). Nomenclature and typification of southern African species of Euphorbia Bothalia 42: 217-245.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Geltman, D. (2008 publ. 2009). Synopsis of Euphorbia L. section Chamaebuxus Lázaro (Euphorbiaceae) Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 40: 109-158.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 470.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Radcliffe-Smith, Gen. Euphorbiacearum: 405 (2001).
    • S. Carter in F.T.E.A., Euphorbiaceae, part 2: 409 (1988).
    • Pax & K. Hoffmann in Engler, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 19c: 208 (1931).
    • F.C. 5, 2: 222 (1915).
    • N.E. Brown in F.T.A. 6, 1: 470 (1911)
    • Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3, 1: 258 (1880).
    • Boissier in de Candolle, Prodr. 15, 2: 7 (1862).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 208 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 450 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Pax in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 19C: 208 (1931)
    • N.E. Br. in F.T.A. 6(1): 470 (1911)
    • Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 78 (1862)
    • G.P. 3(1): 258 (1800)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 208 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 450 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0