1. Family: Moraceae Gaudich.
    1. Ficus Tourn. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or sometimes lianas, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic (and then with aerial roots, often strangling and secondarily terrestrial), monoecious or (gyno)dioecious.
    Leaves
    Leaves spirally arranged, distichous, subopposite or subverticillate; lamina pinnately veined, with glandular (sometimes waxy) spots in the axils of at least the basal lateral veins beneath or (mostly a single spot) at the base of the midrib beneath; stipules fully amplexicaul, semi-amplexicaul or lateral, free or partly connate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences (figs or syconia) solitary or in pairs in the leaf axils, mostly several together on small spurs in the leaf axils down to the lesser branches or on distinct spurs on the lesser branches down to the trunk, or on leafless branchlets on the older wood, down to the base of the trunk.
    Fruits
    Figs consist of an urceolate receptacle with a ± narrow apical opening (ostiole), the flowers enclosed within; figs are functionally bisexual, containing staminate flowers, long styled flowers (destined to produce seeds) and short styled flowers (destined to hatch the larvae of the pollinator); or the figs on one plant occur as “gall figs” containing staminat flowers and short styled flowers (which do not produce seeds but serve as breeding sites for the pollinator) and on another plant occur as “seed figs” containing only long-styled, fully functional, pistillate flowers. Fruits achene-like or more often ± drupaceous, releasing the endocarp body (pyrene) or not; at the fruiting stage the wall of the fig becomes ± fleshy, yellow, orange, red, pink or purplish, or green. “Gall fruits” achene-like.
    Bracts
    Bracts 2–3(4) on the peduncle (peduncular bracts) or 2–3 subtending the receptacle (basal bracts), sometimes on the outer surface of the receptacle (lateral bracts); numerous bracts in the opening of the receptacle (ostiolar bracts), and often among the flowers (interfloral bracts).
    Flowers
    Staminate flowers occur near the ostiole or dispersed within the inflorescence, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1–3, pistillode mostly absent. Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(7), free or connate; ovary free, stigmas 1 filiform or infundibuliform or 2 and ± filiform or subulate, the stigmas cohering; pistillate flowers in (gyno)dioecious taxa are strongly differentiated into long-styled and short-styled flowers, while in monoecious taxa (where all pistillate flowers set seed) styles of intermediate lengths often occur.
    [FTEA]

    Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or sometimes lianas, terrestrial or hemi-epiphytic (and then with aerial roots, often strangling and secondarily terrestrial), monoecious or dioecious
    Leaves
    Leaves in spirals, distichous, subopposite or subverticillate; lamina pinnately veined with glandular (sometimes waxy) spots in the axils of at least the basal lateral veins beneath or (mostly a single spot) at the base of the midrib beneath; stipules fully amplexicaul, semi- amplexicaul or lateral, free or partly connate
    Inflorescences
    Figs unisexual, containing staminate flowers, seed flowers (destined to produce seeds) and gall flowers (destined to hatch the larvae of the pollinator) or the figs on one plant containing staminate flowers and gall flowers (gall figs) and on another plant containing only seed flowers (seed figs); bracts 2–3(–4) on the peduncle (peduncular bracts) or subtending the receptacle (basal bracts), sometimes on the outer surface of the receptacle (lateral bracts), many in the opening of the receptacle (ostiolar bracts), and often among the flowers (interfloral bracts) Inflorescences (figs; syconia) solitary or in pairs in the leaf-axils, mostly several together on small spurs in the leaf-axils down to the lesser branches or on distinct spurs on the lesser branches down to the trunk, or on leafless branchlets on the older wood down to the base of the trunk
    Receptacle
    Receptacle urceolate, with a narrow apical opening (ostiole)
    Male
    Staminate flowers near the ostiole or dispersed, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1 or 1–3; pistillode present or absent
    Flowers
    Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(–7), free or connate; ovary free; stigmas 1, filiform or infundibuliform, or 2 and ± filiform; pistillate flowers ± strongly differentiated into seed flowers (sessile or shortly pedicellate, ovary often oblong to ovate and the style relatively long) and gall flowers (mostly pedicellate, ovary often ± obovate and the style relatively short, in dioecious species; gall flowers mostly not functional) Staminate flowers near the ostiole or dispersed, mostly pedicellate; tepals 2–6, free or connate; stamens 1 or 1–3; pistillode present or absent
    Female
    Pistillate flowers sessile or pedicellate; tepals 2–6(–7), free or connate; ovary free; stigmas 1, filiform or infundibuliform, or 2 and ± filiform; pistillate flowers ± strongly differentiated into seed flowers (sessile or shortly pedicellate, ovary often oblong to ovate and the style relatively long) and gall flowers (mostly pedicellate, ovary often ± obovate and the style relatively short, in dioecious species; gall flowers mostly not functional)
    Fruits
    Fruits achene-like or often ± drupaceous, releasing the endocarp-body (pyrene) or not; at fruit the wall of the fig mostly ± fleshy, coloured or green; gall fruits achene-like.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Arkansas, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, Corse, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., France, Galápagos, Great Britain, Hawaii, Hungary, Italy, Juan Fernández Is., Krym, Madeira, Masachusettes, Morocco, New Mexico, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Switzerland, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Ficus Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 27, 2013 Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K000946828
    Jul 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [412], Cameroon K000027241
    Jan 1, 1996 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8207], Brazil K000946827
    Oct 1, 1980 Glaziou, A.F.M. [13213], Brazil K000946824
    Kenya 13149.000
    Papua New Guinea 2716.000
    Tanzania 29047.039
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7892], Zambia 2710.000
    Robson, N.K. [928], Zambia 13150.000
    Keay, R.W.J. [25803], Nigeria 13151.000
    Rodway, F.A. [2543], Australia 2719.000
    Tweedie, E.M. [3305], Kenya 35459.000
    Eyles, F. [8818], Zimbabwe 13148.000
    Chevalier, A. [22444], Ivory Coast K000243191
    Harley, R.M. [21392], Brazil 72757.000
    Harley, R.M. [21515], Brazil K000946826
    Small, D. [81], Sierra Leone 29372.000
    Angus, A. [435], Zambia 15979.000
    Dawkins, H. [671], Uganda 30414.000
    Newbould, J. [2481], Tanzania 29101.000
    Sands, M.J.S. [401], Indonesia 26332.041
    Forman, L.L. [282], Indonesia 15980.000
    Forman, L.L. [189], Indonesia 17076.000
    Forman, L.L. [210], Indonesia 17077.000
    Forman, L.L. [350], Indonesia 2717.000
    Forman, L.L., Indonesia 2718.000
    Philcox, D. [4572], Brazil 7573.000
    Coode, M. [4177], Reunion 7334.000
    Pennington, T.D. [10501], Ecuador 54211.000
    Miller, A.K. [393], Uganda 29435.000
    Jacobs [7932], Philippines 7666.000
    Hamilton, A.C. [93], Uganda 27461.010
    Hamilton, A.C. [95], Uganda 7554.000
    Fay, J.M. [8637], Central African Republic 60243.000
    Johns, R.J. [10494], Indonesia 70092.000
    Johns, R.J. [10623], Indonesia 70093.000
    Johns, R.J. [10617], Indonesia 70095.000
    Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 62497.000
    Johns, R.J. [9781], New Guinea 62505.000
    Johns, R.J. [9766], New Guinea 70609.000
    Johns, R.J. [9779], New Guinea 70610.000
    Johns, R.J. [10425], New Guinea 70615.000
    Johns, R.J. [9779], New Guinea 70616.000
    Johns, R.J. [9780], New Guinea 70620.000
    Johns, R.J. [10423], New Guinea 29047.976
    Johns, R.J. [10423], New Guinea 29047.973
    Johns, R.J. [10595], New Guinea 29047.978
    Johns, R.J. [10595], New Guinea 29047.979
    Johns, R.J. [10472], New Guinea 29047.980
    Johns, R.J. [10667], New Guinea 64379.000
    Johns, R.J. [10450], New Guinea 64378.000
    Johns, R.J. [10493], New Guinea 64417.000
    Johns, R.J. [10446], New Guinea 64382.000
    Johns, R.J. [10661], New Guinea 64380.000
    Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 64384.000
    Johns, R.J. [10494], New Guinea 64383.000
    Johns, R.J. [10435], New Guinea 71247.000
    Johns, R.J. [10405], New Guinea 71252.000
    Johns, R.J. [10503], New Guinea 71249.000
    Johns, R.J. [10511], New Guinea 71250.000
    Johns, R.J. [10510], New Guinea 71261.000
    Johns, R.J. [10682], New Guinea 71262.000
    Johns, R.J. [10430], New Guinea 70652.000
    Johns, R.J. [10713], Indonesia 72653.000
    Johns, R.J. [8747], Indonesia 72668.000
    Johns, R.J. [10470], Indonesia 70000.098
    Johns, R.J. [10512], Indonesia 64591.000
    Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 64593.000
    Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 64594.000
    Johns, R.J. [10510], Indonesia 72681.000
    Johns, R.J. [10595], Indonesia 72680.000
    Johns, R.J. [10511], Indonesia 72679.000
    Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 70000.145
    Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 64616.000
    Johns, R.J. [10797], Indonesia 64620.000
    Johns, R.J. [10802], Indonesia 73262.000
    Johns, R.J. [10792], Indonesia 73276.000
    Johns, R.J. [10794], New Guinea 64563.000
    Johns, R.J. [10794], New Guinea 64564.000
    Johns, R.J. [10796], New Guinea 64726.000
    Cheek, M. [8888], Cameroon 63838.000
    Cheek, M. [8273], Cameroon K000381398
    Harris, D.J. [746], Central African Republic 53769.000
    Harris, D.J. [492], Central African Republic 53771.000
    Harris, D.J. [1110], Central African Republic 60361.000
    Harris, D.J. [1429], Central African Republic 63257.000
    Hepper [8170], Côte d'Ivoire 47009.000
    Kajewcki [1912], Papua New Guinea 46960.000
    Morren [3066], New Guinea 60069.000
    Morren [3065], New Guinea 60080.000
    Frodin, D.G. [3197A], New Guinea 63130.000
    Frodin, D.G. [3358], New Guinea 63183.000
    Spruce, R. [2217], Brazil K000946433
    Utteridge, T.M.A. [396], Indonesia 70091.000
    Utteridge, T.M.A. [397], Indonesia 70094.000
    Utteridge, T.M.A. [42], Indonesia 62395.000
    Utteridge, T.M.A. [81], Indonesia 62405.000
    Triono, T. [174], New Guinea 29047.981
    Puradyatmika, P. [10435], New Guinea 70577.000
    Fyffe, R. [77], Uganda K000243355
    Pott, A. [2464], Brazil K000946823
    Walker, J.S. [DB325], Sulawesi 73935.000
    Walker, J.S. [DB165], Sulawesi 73949.000
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Nepal K001132560
    Rosário, C.S. [1007], Brazil K000946825
    s.coll. [2217], Brazil K000946432
    Asongani, J.N. [1298], Cameroon K000436266

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Chantarasuwan, B., Berg, C.C. & van Welzen, P.C. (2013). A revision of Ficus subsection Urostrigma (Moraceae) Systematic Botany 38: 653-686.
    • Chaudhary, L.B., Sudhakar, J.V., Kumar, A., Bajpai, O., Tiwari, R. & Murthy, G.V.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in India Taiwania 57: 193-216.
    • Berg, C.C. & Villavicencio, X. (2004). Taxonomic studies on Ficus (Moraceae) in the West Indies, extra-Amazonian Brazil, and Bolivia Ilicifolia 5: 1-130.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 78
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Kirkia13: 253–291 (1990).
    • van Greuning in S. Afr. J. Bot.56, 6: 599–630 (1990).
    • C.C. Berg in F.T.E.A., Moraceae: 43 (1989)
    • Corner in Gard. Bull., Singapore 21: 1 (1965).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 482 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 482 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0