1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Aristida L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to Mongolia and N. America.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Lodicules
    Lodicules usually 2, rarely 3, obtuse or absent.
    Stamens
    Stamens 1 or 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles free; stigmas 2, plumose.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis terete or slightly compressed (rarely shallowly grooved), tightly enclosed by the lemma, usually free, with a linear hilum; embryo usually 1/3 - 1/2 the length of the caryopsis.
    Habit
    Annual or perennial, mostly densely tufted, usually with erect or branched, usually solid, rigid culms and long, narrow leaf-laminae, having a ligule of a rim of cilia, and dense spiciform or effuse panicles.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered, narrow, pedicelled, in terminal lax or contracted panicles.
    Inflorescences
    Rhachilla disarticulating obliquely above the glumes.
    Florets
    Floret hermaphrodite, equalling or shorter than, or exceeding the glumes.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent, equal or unequal, narrow, usually 1-3(5) or 3-5-nerved, acute to acuminate or obtuse, or emarginate, mucronate or awn-tipped.
    Lemma
    Lemma narrow, terete or laterally compressed, tapering upwards, with convolute or involute margins, 3-nerved, becoming indurated at maturity, bearing at the base an acute, or obtuse, or truncate, or 2-fid, or emarginate, hard, usually barbate callus, awned from the apex of the lemma or from the apex of a usually twisted column (prolongation of the lemma); articulation absent or present (at the apex of the lemma or at the apex of the column); awns 3(1 central, 2 lateral) or rarely 1, scabrous or glabrous.
    Palea
    Palea shorter than the lemma, not keeled, nerveless or 2-nerved, or absent.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (53), or perennial (235). Rhizomes absent (273), or short (10), or elongated (3). Culms erect (121/140), or geniculately ascending (32/140), or decumbent (7/140), or prostrate (1/140), or rambling (1/140); robust (12/27), or slender (15/27); 2-57.43-200 cm long; firm (263), or wiry (20), or woody (1); without nodal roots (1/2), or rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1); terete (11/14), or elliptical in section (3/14). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/6), or swollen (5/6). Lateral branches lacking (92/158), or sparse (54/158), or ample (31/158), or fastigiate (9/158), or suffrutescent (1/158). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (11), or a fringe of hairs (273). Leaf-blades aciculate (4), or filiform (58), or linear (231); herbaceous (278), or coriaceous (6); stiff (22), or firm (262). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (2/14), or cartilaginous (12/14). Leaf-blade apex muticous (281), or pungent (3).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; terminal (283), or terminal and axillary (1); not deciduous as a whole (283), or deciduous as a whole (1); exserted (282), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Panicle open (160), or contracted (114), or spiciform (26), or capitate (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (283), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets appressed (15/16), or spreading (1/16); solitary (247/249), or in pairs (2/249). Fertile spikelets sessile (27/248), or sessile and pedicelled (1/248), or pedicelled (220/248). Pedicels filiform (7/9), or oblong (1/9), or clavate (1/9); tip widened (3/3).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (112/249), or lanceolate (135/249), or oblong (1/249), or cuneate (1/249); laterally compressed (5), or subterete (279); 2-11.51-66 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (11), or evident (138), or elongated (135); without wings (282), or winged (2); pubescent (183/279), or pilose (66/279), or bearded (30/279); truncate (8), or obtuse (107), or acute (122), or pungent (42), or 2-toothed (11).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (112/249), or lanceolate (135/249), or oblong (1/249), or cuneate (1/249); laterally compressed (5), or subterete (279); 2-11.51-66 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (11), or evident (138), or elongated (135); without wings (282), or winged (2); pubescent (183/279), or pilose (66/279), or bearded (30/279); truncate (8), or obtuse (107), or acute (122), or pungent (42), or 2-toothed (11).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (171/182), or lower deciduous, upper persistent (3/182), or deciduous (8/182); shorter than spikelet (34/248), or reaching apex of florets (60/248), or exceeding apex of florets (182/248); thinner than fertile lemma (249), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (35); parallel to lemmas (283), or recurved at apex (1), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (62), or lanceolate (226), or oblong (2); 0.3-0.8632-4 length of upper glume; membranous (236/249), or chartaceous (3/249), or scarious (10/249); 1-keeled (153/153); 1 -veined (231/269), or 2 -veined (20/269), or 3 -veined (49/269), or 4 -veined (9/269), or 5 -veined (11/269), or 6-7 -veined (5/269). Lower glume lateral veins absent (202), or obscure (9), or distinct (84). Lower glume surface smooth (218), or asperulous (65), or scabrous (60); glabrous (278), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (4), or pilose (2), or hispidulous (2), or hispid (1), or woolly (1). Lower glume apex entire (262), or dentate (22), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (23/23); emarginate (14/258), or obtuse (19/258), or acute (124/258), or acuminate (122/258), or attenuate (16/258), or setaceously attenuate (48/258), or cuspidate (2/258); muticous (191), or mucronate (50), or awned (73). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (69), or lanceolate (216), or oblong (3), or cuneate (1); 0.4-1.474-6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (236/249), or chartaceous (3/249), or scarious (10/249); with undifferentiated margins (283), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (2/151), or 1-keeled (149/151); 1 -veined (262/266), or 2 -veined (8/266), or 3 -veined (12/266). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (283), or ciliolate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (265), or asperulous (30), or scabrous (23); glabrous (281), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (2), or pilose (2), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1), or woolly (1). Upper glume apex entire (221), or erose (2), or dentate (63), or lobed (3); 2 -fid (65/66), or 3 -fid (1/66); emarginate (26/224), or truncate (7/224), or obtuse (23/224), or acute (100/224), or acuminate (101/224), or attenuate (12/224), or setaceously attenuate (40/224), or caudate (1/224); muticous (165), or mucronate (70), or awned (76); 1 -awned (70/70).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma linear (112/250), or lanceolate (79/250), or elliptic (54/250), or oblong (5/250), or ovate (1/250); laterally compressed (14), or subterete (271); oblong in profile (1/1); coriaceous (249/249); without keel (223/256), or keeled (33/256); 3 -veined (280/281), or 5 -veined (1/281). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (263), or scaberulous (9), or scabrous (18). Lemma surface smooth (164), or granulose (4), or asperulous (7), or scaberulous (63), or scabrous (59), or papillose (7), or tuberculate (12), or punctate (4); without grooves (274), or with a median groove (10); glabrous (280), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or villous (1), or hispid (1). Lemma margins flat (1), or involute (50), or convolute (235); exposing palea (36), or covering most of palea (248). Lemma apex entire (283), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); acute (137/146), or acuminate (3/146), or attenuate (1/146), or rostrate (5/146); without ornament (282), or scabrous (2); without appendage (272), or with a short cylindrical neck (10), or with outer margin prolonged as a hyaline appendage (2); muticous (1), or awned; 1 -awned (17), or 3 -awned (275). Principal lemma awn apical (283), or from a sinus (1); straight (133), or curved (12), or flexuous (5), or coiled (1), or geniculate (11), or 3-branched (136); attenuate (283), or pungent (1). Column of lemma awn glabrous (126/128), or puberulous (1/128), or pubescent (2/128). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (139/275), or shorter than principal (148/275). Palea present (283), or absent or minute (1); 0.1-0.1836-1 length of lemma; hyaline (11/283), or membranous (272/283); 0 -veined (8/14), or 2 -veined (6/14); without keels (131/283), or 2-keeled (152/283). Palea apex entire (1/2), or dentate (2/2).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (20/20); membranous (1/2), or fleshy (1/2); glabrous (19/20), or ciliate (1/20); truncate (1/3), or obtuse (1/3), or acute (1/3). Anthers 3 (232/232).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (101/101); linear (10/32), or lanceolate (1/32), or fusiform (20/32), or ellipsoid (1/32). Embryo 0.2-0.335-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (72/73), or curved (1/73); 0.2-0.4653-1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (70), or Temperate Asia (23), or Tropical Asia (25), or Australasia (59), or Pacific (5), or North America (50), or South America (100).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennials or annuals, usually without a rootstock
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, usually in a basal tuft, but in annual species borne mainly on the culms
    Inflorescences
    Panicle effuse, contracted, or spike-like
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered with long scarious glumes; lemma cylindrical or laterally compressed, indurated, glabrous or scabrid, rarely sparsely hairy, the margins convolute or involute, produced into a 3-branched awn (rarely the lateral branches obsolete); awn with or without a column, articulated or not, the branches glabrous or scabrid, never plumose; callus well-developed, obtuse, bifid or acuminate; palea usually less than half as long as the lemma.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alberta, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manitoba, Marquesas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Fiji, Hawaii, Japan, New Zealand North, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu

    Aristida L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Harley, R.M. [28672], Brazil K001101379
    Stannard, B.L. [s.n.], Brazil K001101368
    Hatschbach, G. [70597], Brazil K001101367
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6025], Brazil K001101378
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8956], Brazil K001101380
    Silva, G.P. [2433], Brazil K001101377
    Filgueiras, T.S. [2323], Brazil K001101365
    Filgueiras, T.S. [2323], Brazil K001101366
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3788], Myanmar K001117217
    Valls, J.F.M. [2434], Brazil K001101382
    Dias-Melo, R. [290], Brazil K001101369
    Dias-Melo, R. [261], Brazil K001101370
    Dias-Melo, R. [268], Brazil K001101371
    Dias-Melo, R. [262], Brazil K001101372
    Dias-Melo, R. [275], Brazil K001101373
    Dias-Melo, R. [247], Brazil K001101374
    Dias-Melo, R. [259], Brazil K001101375
    Dias-Melo, R. [259], Brazil K001101376
    Dias-Melo, R. [288], Brazil K001101383
    Dias-Melo, R. [273], Brazil K001101384
    Dias-Melo, R. [260], Brazil K001101385
    Dias-Melo, R. [254], Brazil K001101388
    Glaziou, A. [20088], Brazil K001101387
    Valls, J. [2488], Brazil K001101381
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3787], India K001117215
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3787] K001117216
    Burchell [5210], Brazil K001101386
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3795], Nepal Streptachne K001117229

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 82 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Henrard in Mededeel. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54C (1933)
    • Henrard in Mededeel. Rijks Herb. Leiden 58A (1932).
    • Henrard in Mededeel. Rijks Herb. Leiden 58 (1929)
    • Henrard in Mededeel. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54B (1928)
    • Henrard in Mededeel. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54A (1927)
    • Henrard in Mededeel. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54 (1926)
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 35 (1754)
    • Linn., Sp. Pl. 82 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 35 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 82 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • de Winter in Bothalia 8: 229 (1965)
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54C (1933)
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. Leiden 58A (1932)
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. Leiden 58 (1929)
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54B (1928)
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54A (1927)
    • Henr. in Med. Rijks Herb. Leiden 54 (1926)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 35 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 82 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/