1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Hibiscus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America.

    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Fruits
    Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule.– Capsule winged or with very prominent angles (TAB. 89 fig. 2)Series 13 (Pterocarpus).
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes with annual shoots arising from woody rootstocks or underground stems), shrublets, shrubs or (rarely) small trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, simple, lobed or digitately compound.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually solitary, axillary and often forming terminal racemose or corymbose inflorescences by reduction of the upper leaves, medium to large, often yellow with a dark centre or red, pink, purplish or white; peduncle usually articulated.
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx (occasionally absent) of 5–20 bracts very variable in shape and length, free or adnate to the base of the calyx.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-merous, usually with 5 lobes (or rarely 5 or 10 teeth) joined at the base or more rarely almost to the apex, persistent.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube truncate at the apex; free parts of filaments very variable in length, sometimes whorled.
    Pistil
    Ovary 4–5-locular; loculi 3–? -ovulate; style usually 5-branched.
    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes arising from woody rootstocks or underground stems, shrublets, shrubs or (rarely) small trees; indument stellate, rarely also simple
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, simple, lobed or digitately compound, stipulate, the stipules usually subulate to linear
    Flowers
    Flowers usually solitary and axillary but often forming terminal, racemose or corymbose inflorescences by reduction of the upper leaves; peduncle usually articulated
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx of 5–20 bracts, free or adnate to the base of the calyx, occasionally absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, rarely 5- or 10-toothed, joined at base or more rarely almost to the apex, persistent
    Corolla
    Corolla often yellow with a dark red centre or red, pink, purple or white
    Stamens
    Staminal tube with five minute teeth at the apex; free parts of filaments variable in length, sometimes whorled
    Ovary
    Ovary 4–5locular; loculi 3–many-ovulate.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 5
    Fruits
    Fruit a loculicidal capsule, not separating from the receptacle
    Seeds
    Seeds 3-more per locule, reniform.
    Note
    200 species in warm temperate and tropical regions. 53 species are found in the wild in East Africa, and 6 introduced species commonly cultivated as ornamentals. Variation within many species is wide with some apparently intergrading in southern Africa, the centre of diversity for this genus. Further study of live material in the field will enable improvement of this account. Several species of Hibiscus have been introduced in cultivation, either from other parts of the world or from the wild.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Amur, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bermuda, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chita, Colorado, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., France, Galápagos, Germany, Great Britain, Idaho, Irkutsk, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Madeira, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marquesas, Mongolia, Montana, New Brunswick, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Oregon, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Samoa, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Washington, Wyoming, Xinjiang

    Hibiscus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hunt, D.R. [5535], Brazil K001218419
    Hunt, D.R. [5535], Brazil K001218420
    Ratter, J.A. [1375], Brazil K001218417
    Ratter, J.A. [1375], Brazil K001218418
    Ratter, J.A. [1375], Brazil K001218421
    Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132953
    Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132952
    Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132951
    Manning, S.D. [666], Cameroon K000105069

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 693 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Christenhusz, M.J.M., Fay, M.F. & Chase, M.W. (2017). Plants of the World. An illustrated encyclopedia of vascular plants: 1-792. Kew Publishing, The university of Chicago Press.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 194.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hochr. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève, 4: 23 (1900).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 310 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 693 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kubitzki, Fam. & Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 284 (2003)
    • Engl. Pflanzenw. Afr. 3, 2: 391 (1921)
    • Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve, 4: 23 (1900)
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 310 (1754)
    • Miller, Gard. Bot. Abr. ed. 4 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 693 (1753)
    • Thes. Zeyl.: 133 (1737)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/