1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Andropogon L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly lanceolate to oblong, subterete to plano-convex
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren (occasionally suppressed), never concave on the back, usually awnless. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, or squeezed between pedicel and internode; callus obtuse, inserted in the concave top of the internode; lower glume membranous to coriaceous, mostly flat, concave or deeply grooved on the back, 2-keeled, the keels lateral or dorsal, with or without intercarinal nerves; upper glume awned or not; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, bilobed, passing between the teeth into a conspicuous awn with a glabrous or puberulous column
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren (occasionally suppressed), never concave on the back, usually awnless.
    Habit
    Annuals or perennials, mostly robust
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, never aromatic; ligule membranous or reduced to a ciliate rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired or digitate (rarely solitary) racemes, terminal on the culm or axillary, in the latter case often numerous and crowded into a spathate false panicle; racemes very rarely deflexed at maturity, lacking homogamous pairs or these not conspicuously differentiated from the rest; internodes and pedicels filiform to obovoid, ciliate to plumose (rarely glabrous)
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed, or squeezed between pedicel and internode; callus obtuse, inserted in the concave top of the internode; lower glume membranous to coriaceous, mostly flat, concave or deeply grooved on the back, 2-keeled, the keels lateral or dorsal, with or without intercarinal nerves; upper glume awned or not; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, bilobed, passing between the teeth into a conspicuous awn with a glabrous or puberulous column
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (7), or perennial (99). Rhizomes absent (101), or short (5), or elongated (3). Culms erect (44/54), or geniculately ascending (10/54), or decumbent (4/54), or rambling (3/54); robust (5/8), or slender (3/8); 5-103.2-400 cm long; firm (102), or wiry (4); without nodal roots (1/1), or with prop roots (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (1/1), or channelled (1/1). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3/32), or sparse (19/32), or ample (9/32), or fastigiate (1/32), or suffrutescent (2/32). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (99), or erect (10). Ligule an eciliate membrane (73), or a ciliolate membrane (33), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (104), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades filiform (5), or linear (98), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (105), or coriaceous (1); stiff (12), or firm (93), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib evident (2/5), or conspicuous (2/5), or widened (1/5).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (45), or compound (65); scanty (13/59), or linear (24/59), or paniculate (23/59), or fastigiate (1/59), or fasciculate (1/59). Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (1), or composed of racemes; terminal (36), or terminal and axillary (76); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (38), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1), or a spatheole (70); exserted (87), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (19), or enclosed (5). Spatheole linear (44/62), or lanceolate (21/62), or elliptic (1/62); membranous (1/8), or herbaceous (7/8), or scarious (3/8). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Racemes single (15), or paired (76), or digitate (43), or borne along a central axis (1); erect (1), or ascending (103), or deflexed (2); unilateral (2/5), or bilateral (3/5); bearing few fertile spikelets (1), or many spikelets (105); bearing 2-3 fertile spikelets on each (1/5), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2/5), or 5-6 fertile spikelets on each (3/5), or 7-10 fertile spikelets on each (2/5), or 12-25 fertile spikelets on each (1/5). Rhachis tough (1), or fragile at the nodes (105); deciduous from axis (1/1); subterete (4/6), or semiterete (2/6). Spikelet packing contiguous (103), or lax (3). Rhachis internodes filiform (35), or linear (41), or columnar (1), or oblong (3), or clavate (20), or cuneate (14), or inflated (1). Rhachis internode tip transverse (103/105), or oblique (2/105); flat (4), or cupuliform (68), or crateriform (34). Raceme-bases brief (103), or filiform (1), or linear (2), or flattened (1); subequal (3/4), or unequal (the longer measured) (1/4); unappendaged (105), or shortly lobed (1). Spikelets squeezed between internode and pedicel (7/48), or appressed (34/48), or ascending (6/48), or spreading (1/48); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (38), or linear (43), or oblong (2), or clavate (15), or cuneate (16), or inflated (2); tip rectangular (3/13), or widened (1/13), or cupuliform (1/13), or lobed (8/13).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (103), or well-developed (3). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (9), or represented by single glumes (13), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (86); persistent (18/48), or deciduous with the fertile (2/48), or separately deciduous (28/48). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (46/71), or mucronate (8/71), or awned (26/71).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (22), or lanceolate (78), or elliptic (10), or oblong (12), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (12), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (93); 2-5.421-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (82), or square (8), or oblong (11), or cuneate (5), or linear (1); glabrous (5/87), or pubescent (21/87), or pilose (52/87), or bearded (9/87); base truncate (3), or obtuse (101), or acute (1), or pungent (1); attached transversely (4), or inserted (102). Basal sterile spikelets absent (103), or well-developed (3). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (9), or represented by single glumes (13), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (86); persistent (18/48), or deciduous with the fertile (2/48), or separately deciduous (28/48). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (46/71), or mucronate (8/71), or awned (26/71).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (22), or lanceolate (78), or elliptic (10), or oblong (12), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (12), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (93); 2-5.421-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (82), or square (8), or oblong (11), or cuneate (5), or linear (1); glabrous (5/87), or pubescent (21/87), or pilose (52/87), or bearded (9/87); base truncate (3), or obtuse (101), or acute (1), or pungent (1); attached transversely (4), or inserted (102).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (21), or lanceolate (75), or elliptic (12), or oblong (9), or ovate (1); membranous (19), or chartaceous (18), or herbaceous (3), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (64); 2-keeled; wingless (98), or winged on keel (10); 2 -veined (1/9), or 4 -veined (4/9), or 5 -veined (2/9), or 6 -veined (3/9), or 7 -veined (1/9). Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (105), or ribbed (1); intercarinal veins absent (50/74), or obscure (3/74), or distinct (23/74). Lower glume surface convex (9), or flat (26), or concave (67), or with a longitudinal median groove (12), or grooved on either side of midvein (1), or deeply depressed (18); smooth (102), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (2); without pits (104), or pitted (1), or lacunose (1); glabrous (101), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (8), or pilose (4), or hirsute (2), or villous (2). Lower glume apex entire (84), or erose (1), or dentate (22); 2 -fid (22/22); emarginate (1/13), or obtuse (2/13), or acute (7/13), or acuminate (4/13), or caudate (1/13); muticous (105), or awned (1). Upper glume linear (52), or lanceolate (54), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1); membranous (40), or chartaceous (35), or coriaceous (31); 1-keeled; wingless (105), or winged on keel (1); 1 -veined (11/30), or 3 -veined (19/30), or 4-5 -veined (1/30). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (103), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Upper glume surface smooth (105), or scabrous (1); glabrous (104), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex entire (105), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1/14), or acute (9/14), or acuminate (5/14); muticous (84), or mucronate (5), or awned (22); 1 -awned (21/21).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (2), or without significant palea (105). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (2/105), or lanceolate (19/105), or oblong (84/105); hyaline; 0 -veined (5/71), or 1 -veined (3/71), or 2 -veined (65/71), or 3 -veined (6/71); obtuse (1/3), or acute (2/3). Fertile lemma linear (6), or lanceolate (59), or oblong (43); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (1/22), or 1 -veined (16/22), or 2 -veined (4/22), or 3 -veined (8/22). Lemma margins eciliate (91), or ciliolate (6), or ciliate (9). Lemma apex entire (11), or dentate (14), or lobed (82); 2 -fid (96/96); incised 0.15-0.3915-0.6 of lemma length; acute (1/3), or acuminate (2/3); muticous (13), or mucronate (2), or awned (96); 1 -awned (96/96). Principal lemma awn apical (2/98), or from a sinus (96/98); straight (8/98), or curved (1/98), or flexuous (3/98), or geniculate (90/98). Column of lemma awn glabrous (88/90), or puberulous (2/90). Palea present (89), or absent or minute (19); 0.1-0.5614-1 length of lemma; hyaline (19/89), or membranous (70/89); 0 -veined (22/23), or 1 -veined (1/23), or 2 -veined (2/23); without keels (17/89), or 2-keeled (72/89). Palea keels smooth (71/72), or scabrous (1/72); eciliate (71/72), or ciliolate (1/72). Palea apex entire (1/2), or erose (2/2).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (12/12); fleshy (3/3); glabrous (11/12), or ciliate (1/12); truncate (3/3). Anthers 1 (8/65), or 2 (1/65), or 3 (58/65).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); linear (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (2), or Africa (50), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (11), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (3), or North America (20), or South America (44).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Inflorescences
    Racemes usually in pairs, sometimes solitary, arranged in a spatheate false panicle or in several subdigitate groups, usually exserted from the spatheoles; peduncles usually longer than the racemes, rarely the same length, erect at maturity; internodes and pedicels ± filiform or clavate, usually long-ciliate on both margins, occasionally inflated and canaliculate; lowermost pair of spikelets in the inferior raceme homogamous or not obviously different from the others.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet dorsally or laterally compressed, narrowly ovate; callus often rounded; inferior glume with a ± deep median groove or ± flat on the back, muticous, mucronate or awned; superior glume usually keeled and flat or ± strongly convex on the back; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior floret bisexual, its lemma ± deeply bifid or entire, usually awned. Pedicelled spikelet male or sterile, sometimes vestigial, very rarely absent.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Hawaii, Japan, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Transcaucasus, Western Australia

    Andropogon L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Argent, G. [6313], Brazil K001106239
    Ratter, J.A. [6303], Brazil K001106243
    Ule, E. [7747], Brazil K001106244
    Fonseca, M.L. [1231], Brazil K001106241
    Fonseca, M.L. [1231], Brazil K001106242
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8798], Myanmar K001128234
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8801], Myanmar K001128247
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128256
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8806], India K001128262
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8807], Nepal K001128263
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8807], Nepal K001128264
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8808], Nepal K001128265
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8809], Myanmar K001128271
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810], Nepal K001128277
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128278
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128279
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128280
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128281
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8811], Nepal K001128283
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8814], Myanmar K001128286
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8815], Nepal K001128288
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8816], Myanmar K001128290
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8818], Myanmar K001128295
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8818], Myanmar K001128296
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8819], Myanmar K001128298
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8820], Myanmar K001128299
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8823], Nepal K001128303
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8826], Myanmar K001128306
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8811], Nepal K001132275
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8818], Myanmar K001132276
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8815], Nepal K001132277
    Dias-Melo, R. [289], Brazil K001106249
    Dias-Melo, R. [250], Brazil K001106250
    Dias-Melo, R. [267], Brazil K001106251
    Dias-Melo, R. [249], Brazil K001106252
    Dias-Melo, R. [250], Brazil K001106253
    Dias-Melo, R. [287], Brazil K001106254
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8822] K001128301
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8822] K001128302
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8824] K001128304
    Glaziou, A. [22366], Brazil K001106237
    Glaziou, A. [22366], Brazil K001106238
    Glaziou, A. [20569], Brazil K001106240
    Singh, B. [Cat. no. 8799], Nepal K001128235
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8795], India K001128228
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8796] K001128229
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8797], India K001128230
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8798] K001128231
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8798] K001128232
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8798] K001128233
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8802] K001128248
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8802] K001128249
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8803] K001128250
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8803] K001128251
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128252
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128253
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128254
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128255
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8804] K001128257
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805] K001128258
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805] K001128259
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805], India K001128260
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8805] K001128261
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128266
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128267
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128268
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128269
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128270
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8809] K001128272
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128273
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810], India K001128274
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810], India K001128275
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128276
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8810] K001128282
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8815] K001128287 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8815] K001128289
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8817] K001128291
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818] K001128292
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818], India K001128293
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818], India K001128294
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8818] K001128297
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8821] K001128300
    Glaziou [4302], Brazil K001106245
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8812], Myanmar K001128284
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8813], Myanmar K001128285
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8825], Myanmar K001128305

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1045 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Clayton in Hook., Ic. Pl. 37: t. 3644 (1967).
    • F.T.A. 9: 208 (1919)
    • Sp. Pl. 1045 (1763)
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 468 (1754)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Heath in Calyx 4(2): 52 (1994).
    • Clayton in Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 37: t. 3644 (1967).
    • J.G. Anderson in Bothalia 9: 5 (1966).
    • Roberty in Boissiera 9: 267–278 (1960).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 468 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 1045 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Hook., Ic. Pl. 37, t. 3644 (1967)
    • J.G. Anders. in Bothalia 9: 5 (1966)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 468 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1045 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0