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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Schizachyrium Nees

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to W. Pacific, America.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials, often tall but sometimes delicate
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, acute or obtuse at the tip; ligule membranous to scarious
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of single racemes, usually arranged in a spathate false panicle, but sometimes solitary at the top of the culm; racemes slender; internodes and pedicels linear to clavate
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet linear to lanceolate; callus obtuse, inserted in the crateriform and scariously rimmed top of the internode; lower glume thinly chartaceous to sub-coriaceous, convex on the back, 2-keeled (or at least sharply inflexed), the keels ± frontal, with several intercarinal nerves; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, shortly bilobed or deeply bifid (very rarely entire), with a glabrous awn from the sinus (very rarely awnless) Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, commonly smaller than the sessile.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet linear to lanceolate; callus obtuse, inserted in the crateriform and scariously rimmed top of the internode; lower glume thinly chartaceous to sub-coriaceous, convex on the back, 2-keeled (or at least sharply inflexed), the keels ± frontal, with several intercarinal nerves; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, often stipitiform, shortly bilobed or deeply bifid (very rarely entire), with a glabrous awn from the sinus (very rarely awnless)
    Fruits
    Caryopsis linear, subterete
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂ or barren, commonly smaller than the sessile.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (23), or perennial (36). Rhizomes absent (50), or short (9), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (57), or present (1). Culms erect (26/38), or geniculately ascending (4/38), or decumbent (2/38), or prostrate (7/38), or rambling (4/38); robust (1/7), or slender (6/7); 5-64.63-300 cm long; without nodal roots (1/4), or rooting from lower nodes (4/4). Culm-internodes elliptical in section (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (1/25), or sparse (11/25), or ample (13/25). Ligule an eciliate membrane (35), or a ciliolate membrane (23). Leaf-blades filiform (5), or linear (55), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (57), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (57). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (2/3), or widened (1/3). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (14), or compound (45); scanty (29/44), or linear (5/44), or paniculate (9/44), or fastigiate (3/44), or globose (1/44). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (4), or terminal and axillary (54); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (6), or a spatheole (52); exserted (32), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (25), or enclosed (4). Spatheole linear (48/52), or lanceolate (6/52); membranous (1/11), or herbaceous (10/11). Peduncle widened at apex (3/3). Racemes single; bearing 3-8-14 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete (5/49), or semiterete (44/49). Spikelet packing contiguous (56), or lax (2). Rhachis internodes filiform (6), or linear (10), or oblong (6), or clavate (30), or cuneate (12). Rhachis internode tip transverse (1/1); cupuliform (14), or crateriform (44). Spikelets squeezed between internode and pedicel (19/57), or appressed (34/57), or ascending (4/57), or spreading (1/57); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (57), or sessile and pedicelled (1); 1 in the cluster (57), or 2 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (57/57); 1 in the cluster (57/57). Pedicels filiform (9), or linear (24), or columnar (1), or oblong (2), or clavate (16), or cuneate (8), or inflated (1); tip widened (3/7), or cupuliform (2/7), or lobed (2/7).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by awns (2), or represented by single glumes (4), or rudimentary (24), or well-developed (28); deciduous with the fertile (55/56), or separately deciduous (1/56). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (23/53), or awned (34/53).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (15), or lanceolate (36), or elliptic (5), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (17), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (40); 2-5.518-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (53), or square (1), or oblong (2), or cuneate (2); glabrous (2/54), or pubescent (27/54), or pilose (22/54), or bearded (3/54); base obtuse (57), or acute (1); attached obliquely (1/49), or inserted (48/49). Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by awns (2), or represented by single glumes (4), or rudimentary (24), or well-developed (28); deciduous with the fertile (55/56), or separately deciduous (1/56). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (23/53), or awned (34/53).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (15), or lanceolate (36), or elliptic (5), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (17), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (40); 2-5.518-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (53), or square (1), or oblong (2), or cuneate (2); glabrous (2/54), or pubescent (27/54), or pilose (22/54), or bearded (3/54); base obtuse (57), or acute (1); attached obliquely (1/49), or inserted (48/49).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (12), or lanceolate (40), or elliptic (7), or ovate (1); chartaceous (26), or cartilaginous (5), or coriaceous (29); 2-keeled (57/57); wingless (52), or winged on keel (6); 2 -veined (1/8), or 3 -veined (2/8), or 4 -veined (1/8), or 5 -veined (3/8), or 6 -veined (1/8), or 7 -veined (3/8), or 8-9 -veined (1/8), or 11-13 -veined (1/8). Lower glume intercarinal veins absent (4/45), or obscure (15/45), or distinct (26/45). Lower glume surface convex (41), or flat (12), or concave (7), or with a longitudinal median groove (1), or deeply depressed (1); smooth (48), or asperulous (9), or scabrous (1); glabrous (47), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5), or pilose (11), or hirsute (1), or villous (4). Lower glume apex entire (37), or dentate (21), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (22/22); emarginate (4/6), or obtuse (1/6), or acute (1/6), or acuminate (1/6); muticous (55), or mucronate (1), or awned (2). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (55), or oblong (3); membranous (54), or chartaceous (4); 1-keeled; wingless (57), or winged on keel (2); 1 -veined (9/20), or 2 -veined (1/20), or 3 -veined (12/20). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (56), or ciliate (2). Upper glume surface smooth (56), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (56), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex entire (57), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); obtuse (1/23), or acute (7/23), or acuminate (15/23); muticous (53), or mucronate (3), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (53); hyaline (57), or membranous (1); 0 -veined (8/29), or 2 -veined (21/29); obtuse (1/2), or acute (1/2). Fertile lemma linear (4), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or oblong (48), or ovate (1); hyaline (56), or membranous (2); without keel; 0 -veined (1/38), or 1 -veined (30/38), or 2 -veined (1/38), or 3 -veined (6/38). Lemma margins eciliate (49), or ciliolate (7), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (6), or dentate (3), or lobed (52); 2 -fid (54/54); incised 0.1-0.6598-0.9 of lemma length; muticous (4), or awned (57); 1 -awned (57/57). Principal lemma awn apical (3/57), or from a sinus (54/57); straight (1/57), or flexuous (1/57), or geniculate (56/57). Palea present (1), or absent or minute (57).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (2/2). Anthers 3 (16/16).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (18/18); linear (2/9), or lanceolate (3/9), or ellipsoid (3/9), or oblong (2/9), or ovoid (2/9). Embryo 0.33-0.4686-0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (25), or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (8), or Australasia (8), or Pacific (5), or North America (16), or South America (18).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Racemes single, usually arranged in a spatheate false panicle, rarely solitary on the branches, usually not enclosed by the spatheoles; peduncles usually longer than the racemes, rarely shorter; internodes and pedicels ± clavate, glabrous or ciliate on both margins.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet dorsally or laterally compressed, narrowly ovoid to subterete; callus rounded; inferior glume chartaceous to subcoriaceous, with a ± deep and narrow median groove or ± flat or convex, with several intercarinal nerves, these distinct at least at the apex, awnless; superior glume usually keeled, with ± ciliate hyaline margins; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior floret bisexual, the lemma usually keeled, ± deeply bifid, rarely entire, awned. Pedicelled spikelet male or vestigial, usually smaller than the sessile spikelet, rarely bisexual or female, mucronate or with a terminal awn.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alberta, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manitoba, Marianas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Chagos Archipelago, Hawaii, Pakistan

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Schizachyrium Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8858], Cameroon K000936071
    Jan 1, 1994 Williams, S. [92], Cameroon K000510858
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3346], Brazil K001106293
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8934], Brazil K001106294
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [8937], Brazil K001106295
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9192], Brazil K001106297
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5090], Brazil K001106298
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6033], Brazil K001106299
    Lonhi-Wagner, H. [6057], Brazil K001106296

    Bibliography

    First published in C.F.P.von Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 331 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Jacques-Félix in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 33: 423.
    • F.T.A. 9: 184 (1917)
    • Agrost. Bras. 331 (1829)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Roberty in Boissiera 9: 172–180 (1960).
    • Agrost. Bras.: 331 (1829).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Agrost. Bras.: 331 (1829)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0