1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Dichanthium Willemet

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of single, digitate or subdigitate racemes, these rarely branched below; spikelets conspicuously imbricate, those of a pair subequal to equal or unequal in size and shape, usually differing in sex except the lowermost 1–6 pairs which are, with rare exceptions, homogamous and male or neuter; rhachis internodes and pedicels solid.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet callus obtuse; inferior glume chartaceous to cartilaginous, broadly convex to slightly concave, sometimes pitted, acute to broadly obtuse at the apex; superior lemma forming the hyaline base to its awn, entire; awn glabrous. Pedicelled spikelet similar to the sessile spikelet, male or neuter, awnless, rarely bisexual and awned.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (17). Rhizomes absent (21), or short (1). Culms erect (12/19), or geniculately ascending (7/19), or decumbent (4/19); of moderate stature (1/3), or slender (1/3), or weak (1/3); 10-54.77-150 cm long; firm (18), or wiry (4); rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Culm-internodes channelled (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (5/10), or sparse (3/10), or ample (4/10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (21), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (12), or a ciliolate membrane (10). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (3), or firm (19); without exudate (21), or pruinose (1). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/5), or conspicuous (2/5), or widened (2/5). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (21), or compound (1); linear (1/1). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (21), or terminal and axillary (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (20), or a spatheole (2); exserted (20), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1), or enclosed (1). Spatheole linear (2/2); herbaceous (1/1). Peduncle widened at apex (1/1). Racemes single (14), or paired (7), or digitate (13), or borne along a central axis (1); bearing 5-10 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 15-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/2). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened (4/20), or subterete (16/20). Rhachis internodes filiform (10), or linear (12). Rhachis internode tip transverse (3/5), or oblique (2/5); flat (3/3). Raceme-bases brief (13), or filiform (9). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (10), or linear (12).
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (9), or well-developed (15). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (2/19), or separately deciduous (17/19). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (11), or oblong (11), or obovate (2); dorsally compressed; 2-4.371-8.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (20), or square (1), or cuneate (1); pubescent (7), or pilose (12), or bearded (3); base obtuse; attached transversely (19), or attached obliquely (3).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (9), or well-developed (15). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (2/19), or separately deciduous (17/19).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (11), or oblong (11), or obovate (2); dorsally compressed; 2-4.371-8.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (20), or square (1), or cuneate (1); pubescent (7), or pilose (12), or bearded (3); base obtuse; attached transversely (19), or attached obliquely (3).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (8), or oblong (12), or ovate (1), or obovate (2); chartaceous (12), or cartilaginous (7), or coriaceous (3); without keels; wingless (18), or winged on keel (2), or winged on margins (2); 4 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (2/14), or 6 -veined (5/14), or 7 -veined (8/14), or 8 -veined (6/14), or 9 -veined (5/14), or 11 -veined (1/14), or 14-18 -veined (1/14). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (21). Lower glume surface convex (12), or flat (6), or concave (6), or with a longitudinal median groove (1); smooth (18), or asperulous (1), or tuberculate (4); without pits (18), or pitted (4); glabrous (13), or pubescent (5), or pilose (5), or hirsute (1), or villous (1); without hair tufts (19), or with a transverse fringe of hair (5). Lower glume apex entire (20), or dentate (2); 3 -fid (1/1); truncate (5/16), or obtuse (9/16), or acute (7/16), or attenuate (1/16). Upper glume lanceolate (18), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2); membranous (1/5), or chartaceous (2/5), or cartilaginous (1/5), or coriaceous (1/5); with undifferentiated margins (21), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (3/21), or 1-keeled (18/21); 1 -veined (2/15), or 3 -veined (13/15). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (21), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (21), or scabrous (1); glabrous (21), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex entire (20), or erose (1), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1/10), or acute (6/10), or acuminate (3/10); muticous (20), or mucronate (2), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1/9), or lanceolate (1/9), or elliptic (2/9), or oblong (4/9), or ovate (3/9); hyaline; 0 -veined (8/9), or 3-5 -veined (1/9); obtuse (3/4), or acute (2/4). Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined (19/19). Lemma margins eciliate (21), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (20), or dentate (2), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (4/4); incised 0.2-0.43-0.66 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (20), or from a sinus (4); geniculate. Column of lemma awn glabrous (20), or puberulous (2). Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 2 (3/20), or 3 (17/20).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (10/10); ellipsoid (1/6), or oblong (2/6), or ovoid (1/6), or obovoid (3/6). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (17), or Australasia (8), or Pacific (5), or North America (3), or South America (3).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or rolled, sometimes aromatic; ligule membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of single or subdigitate racemes, these with or without homogamous pairs at the base; internodes and pedicels linear, solid
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus very short, rounded; lower glume broadly convex to slightly concave on the back, abruptly rounded on the flanks, with or without a circular pit; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, entire or rarely minutely bidentate, with a glabrous or puberulous awn Pedicelled spikelet much like the sessile.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus very short, rounded; lower glume broadly convex to slightly concave on the back, abruptly rounded on the flanks, with or without a circular pit; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma stipitiform, entire or rarely minutely bidentate, with a glabrous or puberulous awn
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, dorsally compressed
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet much like the sessile.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Ascension, Belize, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Kriti, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Seychelles, St.Helena, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Dichanthium Willemet appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 18: 11 (1796)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 177 (1917).
    • in Neue Ann. Bot. 18: 11 (1796)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • De Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 12: 206–207 (1968).
    • in Usteri, Ann. Bot. 18: 11 (1796).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • de Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 12: 206–227 (1968)
    • F.T.A. 9: 177 (1917)
    • in Usteri, Ann. Bot. 18: 11 (1796)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0