1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Bouteloua Lag.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (4), or perennial (21). Rhizomes absent (23), or short (1), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (22), or present (5). Culms erect (12/16), or geniculately ascending (6/16), or decumbent (4/16), or rambling (2/16); slender (6/8), or weak (2/8); 5-45.14-200 cm long. Lateral branches sparse (1/2), or ample (1/2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (19). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (24); stiff (4), or firm (21).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Racemes borne along a central axis; erect (1), or ascending (19), or spreading (4), or deflexed (4); linear (16), or oblong (1), or cuneate (8); unilateral; bearing 1 spikelet (4), or few fertile spikelets (12), or many spikelets (9); bearing 1-5-20 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis unspecialized (24), or flattened (1); tip without extension (8), or subulate (14), or filiform (3). Rhachis deciduous from axis; flattened (4), or angular (17), or subterete (4); terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate (18), or bristle-like (5), or a forked bristle (2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (22), or lax (3). Raceme-bases brief (23), or linear (2). Spikelets appressed (19), or ascending (5), or pectinate (1); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (21), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (3); persistent (3/4), or deciduous with the fertile (1/4).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or cuneate (21); laterally compressed; 2.5-6.439-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (1/3), or pubescent (1/3), or pilose (2/3). Floret callus glabrous (1/3), or pubescent (1/3), or pilose (1/3), or bearded (1/3). Basal sterile spikelets absent (21), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (3); persistent (3/4), or deciduous with the fertile (1/4).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or cuneate (21); laterally compressed; 2.5-6.439-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (1/3), or pubescent (1/3), or pilose (2/3). Floret callus glabrous (1/3), or pubescent (1/3), or pilose (1/3), or bearded (1/3).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (15), or reaching apex of florets (10), or exceeding apex of florets (4); thinner than fertile lemma (21), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (4); parallel to lemmas (4), or gaping (21). Lower glume subulate (1), or linear (2), or lanceolate (22); 0.3-0.6486-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled (24/24); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (20), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex acute (10/24), or acuminate (19/24), or attenuate (6/24), or setaceously attenuate (6/24); muticous (24/24), or mucronate (1/24). Upper glume lanceolate (24), or elliptic (1); 0.6-0.9156-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (23), or ciliate (2). Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (20), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Upper glume apex entire (23), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); acute (9/23), or acuminate (20/23), or attenuate (5/23), or setaceously attenuate (4/23); muticous (23), or mucronate (1), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (5), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (17); membranous (5), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (19); without keel (2), or keeled (23); 3 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (23), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (19), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (4), or villous (1); hairy on back (8/10), or on veins (1/10), or in lines (1/10). Lemma apex entire (6), or dentate (18), or lobed (2); 3 -fid (20/20); incised 0.33 of lemma length; acute (5/6), or acuminate (1/6); muticous (5), or mucronate (8), or awned (14); 2 -awned (1/20), or 3 -awned (19/20). Principal lemma awn apical (18/21), or from a sinus (3/21). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (8/14), or shorter than principal (6/14). Palea 0.8-0.9-1 length of lemma. Palea keels eciliate (24), or puberulous (1). Palea surface glabrous (22), or pubescent (2), or villous (1). Palea apex muticous (16), or with excurrent keel veins (8), or awned (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (24), or 2 in number (3), or 3 in number (1); male (4), or barren (21); separate (23), or in a clump (2); rudimentary (15), or linear (1), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (7), or cuneate (1). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (1), or awned. Apical sterile lemma awns glabrous (23), or ciliate (2).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (7/7).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (2/12), or oblong (1/12), or ovoid (5/12), or obovoid (4/12). Embryo 0.5-0.7339-0.9 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    North America (22), or South America (13).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms erect, or prostrate; 5-15 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Dioecious. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; unilateral. Rhachis deciduous from axis; flattened; terminating in a barren extension; extension bristle-like. Spikelet packing 2 -rowed. Spikelets pectinate; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets sessile. Pedicels oblong. Male inflorescence similar to female; of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 8-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 8-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.66-0.75 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; membranous; without keels; 2-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma elliptic; cartilaginous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface with 2 longitudinal grooves. Lemma apex awned; 3 -awned. Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal. Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea apex awned. Apical sterile florets 3 in number; barren; in a clump; linear. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Embryo 0.9 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female; of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (4), or perennial (14). Rhizomes absent (14), or short (3). Stolons absent, or present (3). Culms erect (8), or geniculately ascending (8), or decumbent (5); slender (5/5); 3-39.4-140 cm long; firm (13), or wiry (4); without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or ample (1/3). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (14).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Racemes single (6), or borne along a central axis (14); erect (3), or ascending (13), or spreading (2); linear, or oblong (2); unilateral; bearing 7-35-100 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis tip without extension (14/14), or subulate (2/14). Rhachis flattened (3/15), or semiterete (12/15); terminating in a spikelet (10), or sterile spikelet (2), or barren extension (5); extension subulate (3/5), or bristle-like (2/5). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (13), or contiguous (2), or lax (1). Spikelets ascending (2), or pectinate (14); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (15), or pedicelled (1). Pedicels linear (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4.677-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (15), or evident (1); pilose (6/6).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4.677-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (15), or evident (1); pilose (6/6).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (8), or exceeding apex of florets (4); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (2), or gaping (14). Lower glume lanceolate; 0.33-0.6641-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (15), or distinct (1). Lower glume surface smooth (15), or asperulous (1); glabrous (15), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex entire (14), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); obtuse (1), or acute (5), or acuminate (12), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (11), or mucronate (5), or awned (1). Upper glume lanceolate; 0.66-1.091-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (14), or ciliate (3). Upper glume surface smooth (15), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (12), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1), or villous (1), or woolly (1); with simple hairs (4/5), or tubercle-based hairs (1/5). Upper glume apex entire (13), or dentate (4); 2 -fid (4/4); obtuse (1), or acute (5), or acuminate (12), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (10), or mucronate (4), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong (15), or ovate (1); coriaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (14), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Lemma lateral veins excurrent (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (6), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (11), or pilose (2), or woolly (1). Lemma margins eciliate (13), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex entire (1), or dentate (1), or lobed (14); 2 -fid (1/15), or 3 -fid (14/15); incised 0.3 of lemma length; muticous (1), or mucronate (1), or awned (14); 1 -awned (3/14), or 3 -awned (11/14). Principal lemma awn apical (12/15), or from a sinus (3/15). Lateral lemma awns longer than principal (1/11), or subequal to principal (7/11), or shorter than principal (3/11). Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate (15), or ciliolate (1). Palea surface glabrous (14), or pubescent (2). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (13), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (12), or 2 in number (8); barren; separate (11), or in a clump (5); rudimentary (5), or oblong (1), or cuneate (10). Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (2/2).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (2/12), or oblong (1/12), or obovoid (9/12); trigonous (1/1). Embryo 0.66-0.7367-0.9 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    North America, or South America (3).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (2). Culms erect; 10-20.83-30 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades herbaceous (2), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (2), or terminal and axillary (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; cuneate; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (2), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (1). Central inflorescence axis unspecialized (2), or flattened (1); tip filiform. Rhachis deciduous from axis; terminating in a barren extension; extension a forked bristle. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster (2), or 2 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets sessile (2/2); 1 in the cluster (2/2).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by awns (2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; dorsally compressed; 3-4.27-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded. Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by awns (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; dorsally compressed; 3-4.27-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded.
    Glume
    Lower glume subulate. Lower glume surface hispid. Upper glume subulate. Upper glume surface smooth (2), or scabrous (1); glabrous (1), or hispid (2).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; cartilaginous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent (1), or pilose (2). Lemma apex lobed; 3 -fid; incised 0.33-0.3867-0.5 of lemma length; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus. Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal. Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (2), or scaberulous (1). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (2), or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets 1 in number; male (1), or barren (2); lanceolate (2), or ovate (1). Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (1/1).
    Distribution
    North America (2), or South America (2).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (1). Stolons absent (1), or present (1). Culms slender (1/1); 4-12.25-25 cm long. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or triangular (1).
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious, or dioecious (1). Inflorescence composed of racemes; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Racemes single, or borne along a central axis (1); unilateral; bearing 1-4 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis deciduous from axis (1/1); angular; terminating in a spikelet (1), or barren extension (1); extension subulate (1/1). Spikelet packing lax. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Male spikelets sessile. Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; a single raceme (1), or of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 1.66-2.64-3.5 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus brief (1), or square (1); pubescent (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 1.66-2.64-3.5 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus brief (1), or square (1); pubescent (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (1), or two (1); reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1/1); 0.5 length of upper glume; hyaline (1/1). Lower glume apex acute (1/1). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or oblong (1); 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume surface pilose. Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (1).
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma ovate; coriaceous; much thinner above; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (1), or pilose (1). Lemma apex entire (1), or lobed (1); 3 -fid (1/1); obtuse (1/1); muticous (1), or awned (1); 3 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (1/1). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; cartilaginous; 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (1), or winged (1). Apical sterile florets 1 in number; lanceolate. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Male
    Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; a single raceme (1), or of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America, or South America (1).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades stiff.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious, or dioecious. Inflorescence composed of racemes; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Racemes borne along a central axis; in a head; cuneate; unilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 2-4 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis deciduous from axis; terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Male spikelets sessile. Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes collateral; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 0.66 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface pilose. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume surface pilose. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma elliptic; cartilaginous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface puberulous. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex lobed; 3 -fid; incised 0.33 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus. Apical sterile florets 2-3 in number; in a clump; rudimentary. Apical sterile lemmas awned. Apical sterile lemma awns ciliate.
    Male
    Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms 10-30 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious, or dioecious. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; bearing a triad of spikelets. Rhachis obsolete; deciduous from axis. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile; 3 in a cluster. Pedicels oblong. Male inflorescence terminal; similar to female; of racemes along a central axis. Male spikelets resembling female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 1; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume cuneate; 0.66 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 2 -veined. Upper glume apex erose; truncate.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma elliptic; cartilaginous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma apex lobed; 3 -fid; incised 0.33 of lemma length; acute. Apical sterile florets 1 in number; barren; rudimentary. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Male
    Male inflorescence terminal; similar to female; of racemes along a central axis. Male spikelets resembling female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 1; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America, or South America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms 5-10 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious, or dioecious. Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an inflated leaf-sheath; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Racemes paired; globose; unilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 3-5 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis obsolete; deciduous from axis. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Male spikelets sessile. Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; ovate. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0-0.5 length of upper glume; membranous. Upper glume ovate; indurate; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume apex lobed; 3 -fid; acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; membranous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma apex lobed; 3 -fid; incised 0.5 of lemma length. Palea 0.5 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, or ovoid. Embryo 0.9 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence terminal; unlike female; of racemes along a central axis; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; ovate. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms erect; 5-15 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Dioecious. Inflorescence composed of racemes; deciduous as a whole. Racemes single; unilateral. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing 2 -rowed. Spikelets pectinate; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear. Male inflorescence similar to female; a single raceme; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 6-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Floret callus pubescent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 6-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Floret callus pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 0.75 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex attenuate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume apex attenuate.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate; cartilaginous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma apex awned; 3 -awned. Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal. Palea 0.75 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea apex awned. Apical sterile florets 2-3 in number; barren; in a clump; linear. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform. Embryo 0.66 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female; a single raceme; with pectinate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms erect, or decumbent; 15-40 cm long. Ligule a ciliolate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; cuneate; bearing a triad of spikelets. Central inflorescence axis tip subulate. Rhachis deciduous from axis; terminating in a barren extension; extension bristle-like. Raceme-bases linear. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile. Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 0.6 length of upper glume. Lower glume surface pilose. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume surface pilose. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; cartilaginous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins ciliolate. Lemma apex lobed; 3 -fid; incised 0.33 of lemma length; mucronate. Apical sterile florets 2 in number; barren; in a clump; oblong. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Distribution
    North America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (3). Stolons absent (1), or present (3). Culms erect (1/3), or geniculately ascending (2/3), or decumbent (1/3), or prostrate (1/3); slender (1/1); 4-15.5-35 cm long. Lateral branches ample (1/1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (1).
    Inflorescences
    Bisexual (2), or androdioecious (2). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (3), or terminal and axillary (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; cuneate; bearing a triad of spikelets. Central inflorescence axis tip subulate. Rhachis deciduous from axis; terminating in a spikelet (1), or barren extension (3); extension bristle-like (3/3). Raceme-bases brief (3), or linear (1). Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (3); 1 in the cluster (3), or 3 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets sessile (3/3); 2 in the cluster (3/3). Pedicels linear (1/3), or oblong (2/3). Male inflorescence similar to female (2/2).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or well-developed (3); deciduous with the fertile (3/3). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (2/3), or mucronate (1/3). Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.49-4.232-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or well-developed (3); deciduous with the fertile (3/3). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (2/3), or mucronate (1/3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.49-4.232-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (1), or reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (3); parallel to lemmas (3), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (1), or oblong (1), or flabellate (2); 0.05-0.175-0.3 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 0 -veined (3), or 1 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex emarginate (2/3), or obtuse (1/3). Upper glume lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1); 1-1.15-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (3), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (1), or pilose (1), or villous (2). Upper glume apex entire (3), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); emarginate (1/3), or obtuse (1/3), or acute (1/3), or acuminate (1/3); mucronate (3), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Fertile florets bisexual (2), or female (3). Fertile lemma oblong; membranous (3), or cartilaginous (1); without keel (3), or keeled (1); 3 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous (1), or pubescent (2), or pilose (1). Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex lobed; 3 -fid; incised 0.25-0.27-0.33 of lemma length; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (1), or from a sinus (3); limb glabrous (3), or ciliate (1). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (3), or shorter than principal (1). Palea surface glabrous (3), or pubescent (1). Palea apex muticous (2), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets 2 in number; male, or barren (3); oblong. Apical sterile lemmas awned. Apical sterile lemma awns glabrous (2), or ciliate (2).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); obovoid (1/1); dorsally compressed (1/1); trigonous (1/1).
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female (2/2).
    Distribution
    North America, or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Introduced into:

    Bangladesh, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hawaii, Saudi Arabia

    Bouteloua Lag. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hinton, G.B. [12092], Michoacán Cathestecum K000476042
    Hinton, G.B. [12092], Michoacán Cathestecum K000476043

    First published in Varied. Ci. 2(4): 134 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0