1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Elymus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Northern Hemisphere to Central & S. America, New Zealand.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (6), or short (3), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (9), or present (1). Culms erect (3/5), or geniculately ascending (1/5), or decumbent (2/5); robust (1/2), or weak (1/2); 25-81.25-200 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles absent (9), or falcate (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (2); firm (9), or flaccid (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; ascending (8), or drooping (2); bilateral; bearing 15-19 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 20-30 fertile spikelets on each (3/3), or 31-40 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Rhachis flattened (3/3). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (2), or lax (8). Rhachis internodes indefinite (5), or linear (2), or oblong (3). Spikelets ascending (1/2), or spreading (1/2); solitary (5), or in pairs (5), or in threes (1), or clustered at each node (1). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster (1/6), or 2 in the cluster (5/6), or 3-4 in the cluster (1/6).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (5), or 2 fertile florets (8), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4 fertile florets (3), or 5 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension, or with diminished florets at the apex (2). Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-11.8-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (9), or above glumes but not between florets (1). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (6/8), or sparsely hairy (1/8), or pubescent (1/8). Floret callus brief (9), or evident (1); pubescent (3/4), or pilose (1/4).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (5), or 2 fertile florets (8), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4 fertile florets (3), or 5 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension, or with diminished florets at the apex (2). Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 7-11.8-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (9), or above glumes but not between florets (1). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (6/8), or sparsely hairy (1/8), or pubescent (1/8). Floret callus brief (9), or evident (1); pubescent (3/4), or pilose (1/4).
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure (4), or one the lower absent or obscure (2), or two (7); persistent (9/9); shorter than spikelet (6/6). Lower glume subulate (7/7); 0.75-0.9438-1 length of upper glume; 1 -veined (5/5). Lower glume lateral veins absent (5/7), or distinct (2/7). Lower glume surface smooth (2/7), or scabrous (5/7); glabrous (6/7), or puberulous (1/7). Upper glume subulate (9/9); 0.25-0.6875-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; 1 -veined (7/7), or 2-3 -veined (1/7). Upper glume surface smooth (8/9), or scabrous (1/9); glabrous (8/9), or puberulous (1/9).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (8), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1); coriaceous; without keel; 3-4 -veined (1/9), or 5 -veined (9/9), or 6-7 -veined (2/9). Lemma surface smooth (6), or asperulous (1), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (2); glabrous (8), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1), or hispidulous (2). Lemma margins eciliate (9), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex entire (8), or dentate (2); 2-3 -fid (1/2); acute (1/8), or attenuate (7/8); mucronate (1), or awned (9); 1 -awned (9/9). Principal lemma awn apical (9), or from a sinus (1); 0.9-1-1.1 length of lemma. Palea 0.75-0.9321-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (3/3). Palea keels eciliate (4), or ciliolate (7). Palea apex dentate (4/4).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (8/8); scarious (1/1); glabrous (7/8), or ciliate (1/8). Anthers 3. Ovary pubescent on apex (9/9).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; linear (2/2). Embryo 0.2-0.225-0.25 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (3), or North America (2).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Antipodean Is., Azores, Bermuda, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Chatham Is., Crozet Is., Kerguelen, Madeira, Marion-Prince Edward, New South Wales, South Australia, South Georgia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

    Elymus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0