1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Eulalia Kunth

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennials, rarely annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule short, membranous, densely ciliate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of 1–20 subdigitate racemes, terminal on the culm, the common axis (if present) short in relation to the long slender racemes; racemes conspicuously hairy, bearing paired spikelets, those of each pair alike; internodes and pedicels linear
    Spikelets
    Spikelets dorsally compressed; callus obtuse; lower glume firmly cartilaginous to subcoriaceous, flat across the back with the margins sharply indexed, sometimes 2-keeled towards the tip, usually without intercarinal nerves, often obtuse or truncate, rarely bilobed or 2-awned; upper glume usually awnless; lower floret reduced to a cartilaginous or hyaline lemma, sometimes suppressed; upper lemma hyaline, linear to cordate, bidentate or deeply bifid, with a glabrous (rarely puberulous) awn from the sinus; stamens 3
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Inflorescence of 1–many subdigitate racemes; racemes fragile, conspicuously pilose, with slender internodes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets alike, paired, one sessile, one pedicelled, dorsally compressed, the callus obtuse, not long-barbate.
    Glume
    Inferior glume cartilaginous to subcoriaceous, the back flat and usually nerveless, sharply inflexed on the flanks or becoming 2-keeled above, acute to obtuse or truncate, rarely biaristulate. Superior glume usually awnless.
    Florets
    Inferior floret represented by a lemma or sometimes suppressed.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma linear to cordate, bidentate to bifid, usually with a glabrous awn.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (30). Rhizomes absent (31), or short (2), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (34), or present (1). Culms erect (22/24), or geniculately ascending (3/24), or decumbent (1/24); slender (2/2); 7-69.26-200 cm long; firm (33), or wiry (2); rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (3/3). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (34), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (12), or a ciliolate membrane (19), or a ciliate membrane (2), or a fringe of hairs (3). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (34), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades filiform (5), or linear (32), or lanceolate (3); stiff (2), or firm (32), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/2), or widened (1/2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (34), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes single (5), or paired (6), or digitate (30), or borne along a central axis (2); erect (2), or ascending (34); bearing 7-20 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis tough (3), or fragile at the nodes (34); flattened (1/14), or angular (2/14), or subterete (11/14). Spikelet packing contiguous (34), or lax (1). Rhachis internodes filiform (1), or linear (33), or clavate (1). Rhachis internode tip transverse (28/30), or oblique (2/30); cupuliform (2/2). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled (34), or pedicelled (3); 2 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (1), or linear (34); tip cupuliform (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (15), or elliptic (16), or oblong (5), or cuneate (1); dorsally compressed; 1.5-4.138-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base, or with accessory branch structures (34). Spikelet callus brief (24), or square (10), or oblong (1); pubescent (7/24), or pilose (6/24), or bearded (12/24); base obtuse (34), or acute (1); attached transversely (28), or attached obliquely (6), or inserted (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (15), or elliptic (16), or oblong (5), or cuneate (1); dorsally compressed; 1.5-4.138-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base, or with accessory branch structures (34). Spikelet callus brief (24), or square (10), or oblong (1); pubescent (7/24), or pilose (6/24), or bearded (12/24); base obtuse (34), or acute (1); attached transversely (28), or attached obliquely (6), or inserted (1).
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (34); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (6), or elliptic (22), or oblong (12); chartaceous (19), or cartilaginous (11), or coriaceous (5); without keels (2), or 2-keeled (33); 2 -veined (10/16), or 3 -veined (1/16), or 4 -veined (3/16), or 5 -veined (1/16), or 6 -veined (3/16), or 7-9 -veined (1/16). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (34); intercarinal veins absent (3/8), or obscure (1/8), or distinct (5/8). Lower glume surface convex (12), or flat (15), or concave (14), or with a longitudinal median groove (1); glabrous (8), or pilose (18), or hirsute (2), or villous (8). Lower glume apex entire (22), or erose (1), or dentate (12); 2 -fid (12/12); emarginate (1/20), or truncate (12/20), or obtuse (6/20), or acute (3/20), or acuminate (1/20); muticous (31), or awned (4). Upper glume lanceolate (13), or elliptic (14), or oblong (8), or ovate (1); chartaceous (8/10), or coriaceous (2/10); with undifferentiated margins (33), or hyaline margins (1), or membranous margins (1); without keels (1/23), or 1-keeled (21/23), or 2-keeled (1/23); 1 -veined (12/20), or 2 -veined (2/20), or 3 -veined (9/20), or 5-7 -veined (1/20). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (32), or ciliate (4). Upper glume surface glabrous (13), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or pilose (19), or villous (1); without hair tufts (34), or with a dorsal tuft of hair (1). Upper glume apex entire (32), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); emarginate (1/13), or truncate (6/13), or obtuse (5/13), or acute (1/13), or acuminate (2/13); muticous (24), or mucronate (2), or awned (9); 1 -awned (9/9).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (31/31); with palea (1/31), or without significant palea (30/31). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (5/22), or lanceolate (6/22), or elliptic (2/22), or oblong (10/22), or ovate (3/22); hyaline (24/27), or membranous (3/27); 0 -veined (12/14), or 2 -veined (2/14); truncate (1/14), or obtuse (11/14), or acute (1/14), or acuminate (1/14). Fertile lemma linear (5/33), or lanceolate (6/33), or elliptic (3/33), or oblong (17/33), or ovate (1/33), or orbicular (1/33), or obovate (1/33), or cuneate (1/33); hyaline (34), or membranous (1); without keel; 0 -veined (1/15), or 1 -veined (9/15), or 2 -veined (1/15), or 3 -veined (6/15). Lemma margins eciliate (27), or ciliolate (6), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (3), or erose (1), or dentate (8), or lobed (23); 2 -fid (31/31); incised 0.25-0.4265-0.5 of lemma length; truncate (1/2), or acute (1/2); muticous (2), or awned (34); 1 -awned (34/34). Principal lemma awn apical (3/34), or from a sinus (31/34); geniculate (31/34), or bigeniculate (3/34); limb glabrous (32/34), or puberulous (1/34), or pubescent (1/34). Column of lemma awn glabrous (27/34), or hispidulous (6/34), or ciliate (1/34). Palea present (13), or absent or minute (22); hyaline (5/13), or membranous (8/13); 0 -veined (1/1). Palea surface glabrous (12/13), or pilose (1/13).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (2/2); truncate (1/1). Anthers 3 (33/33).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (6/6); oblong (1/2), or obovoid (1/2). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (15), or Tropical Asia (27), or Australasia (6).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Marianas

    Eulalia Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Révis. Gramin. 1: 160 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Révis. Gramin. 1: 160 (1829).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Rev. Gram. 1: 160 (1829)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0