1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Festuca Tourn. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial (615/615). Rhizomes absent (547), or short (50), or elongated (36). Stolons absent (614), or present (10). Culms erect (288/316), or geniculately ascending (55/316), or decumbent (4/316); robust (19/86), or of moderate stature (31/86), or slender (42/86); 2.5-49.14-260 cm long; firm (618), or wiry (3); without nodal roots (55/56), or rooting from lower nodes (1/56). Culm-internodes terete (75/76), or channelled (1/76). Culm-nodes constricted (5/6), or swollen (1/6). Lateral branches lacking (195/197), or ample (2/197). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (280/418), or tubular for much of their length (141/418). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (494), or erect (122), or falcate (7). Ligule an eciliate membrane (463), or a ciliolate membrane (157), or a ciliate membrane (1), or absent (3). Leaf-blades persistent (610), or deciduous at the ligule (11); aciculate (12), or filiform (373), or linear (240); herbaceous (572), or coriaceous (49); stiff (132), or firm (480), or flaccid (30); without exudate (564), or pruinose (65). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (41/59), or evident (24/59), or conspicuous (5/59). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (619), or with obscure cross veins (2). Leaf-blade surface with rounded ribs (3/4), or rectangular ribs (1/4). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (580), or pungent (44).
    Inflorescences
    Bisexual (610), or monoecious (2), or dioecious (9). Inflorescence a panicle, or comprising only a few spikelets (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (620), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (618), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (482/619), or contracted (154/619), or spiciform (6/619). Primary panicle branches not whorled (619), or whorled at most nodes (2). Spikelets appressed (5/6), or ascending (1/6); solitary (614/615), or in pairs (1/615). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (615/615). Pedicels filiform (3/3); tip rectangular (5/13), or widened (9/13). Male inflorescence similar to female (11/11); a panicle (3/3). Male spikelets resembling female (11/11).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 0-4-13 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (11/620), or with diminished florets at the apex (612/620). Spikelets linear (3/617), or lanceolate (109/617), or elliptic (152/617), or oblong (406/617), or ovate (62/617), or obovate (8/617), or rhomboid (1/617), or cuneate (11/617); laterally compressed (618), or subterete (3); 3-9.199-40 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (619); disarticulating below each fertile floret (619/619), or above glumes but not between florets (1/619). Spikelet callus glabrous (54/58), or pubescent (1/58), or pilose (3/58). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (574/620), or sparsely hairy (9/620), or pubescent (37/620), or pilose (6/620). Floret callus brief (620), or elongated (1); glabrous (67/80), or sparsely hairy (3/80), or pubescent (7/80), or pilose (5/80).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 0-4-13 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (11/620), or with diminished florets at the apex (612/620). Spikelets linear (3/617), or lanceolate (109/617), or elliptic (152/617), or oblong (406/617), or ovate (62/617), or obovate (8/617), or rhomboid (1/617), or cuneate (11/617); laterally compressed (618), or subterete (3); 3-9.199-40 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (619); disarticulating below each fertile floret (619/619), or above glumes but not between florets (1/619). Spikelet callus glabrous (54/58), or pubescent (1/58), or pilose (3/58). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (574/620), or sparsely hairy (9/620), or pubescent (37/620), or pilose (6/620). Floret callus brief (620), or elongated (1); glabrous (67/80), or sparsely hairy (3/80), or pubescent (7/80), or pilose (5/80).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (619/619); shorter than spikelet (614/616), or reaching apex of florets (3/616), or exceeding apex of florets (1/616); thinner than fertile lemma (10), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (611); parallel to lemmas (620), or gaping (1). Lower glume subulate (5/616), or linear (52/616), or lanceolate (539/616), or elliptic (10/616), or oblong (13/616), or ovate (14/616), or obovate (1/616); 0.33-0.752-9 length of upper glume; hyaline (14/616), or membranous (74/616), or chartaceous (520/616), or herbaceous (10/616), or scarious (14/616), or cartilaginous (1/616), or coriaceous (17/616); without keels (597/611), or 1-keeled (16/611); 1 -veined (596/613), or 2 -veined (15/613), or 3 -veined (31/613), or 4-5 -veined (1/613). Lower glume lateral veins absent (583), or obscure (6), or distinct (42); without ribs (47/48), or ribbed (1/48). Lower glume surface smooth (553), or asperulous (40), or scabrous (43); glabrous (608), or puberulous (9), or pubescent (6), or pilose (4). Lower glume apex truncate (2/614), or obtuse (27/614), or acute (536/614), or acuminate (71/614), or attenuate (4/614), or setaceously attenuate (3/614); muticous (612/614), or mucronate (2/614), or awned (1/614). Upper glume linear (29/616), or lanceolate (501/616), or elliptic (24/616), or oblong (57/616), or ovate (80/616), or obovate (3/616); 0.33-0.8138-8.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (7/616), or membranous (55/616), or chartaceous (531/616), or herbaceous (2/616), or scarious (14/616), or coriaceous (13/616); with undifferentiated margins (559), or hyaline margins (15), or membranous margins (12), or scarious margins (35); without keels (600/616), or 1-keeled (16/616); 1 -veined (18/604), or 2 -veined (7/604), or 3 -veined (589/604), or 4 -veined (10/604), or 5 -veined (13/604). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (609/610), or ribbed (1/610). Upper glume surface smooth (541), or asperulous (44), or scabrous (53); glabrous (606), or puberulous (12), or pubescent (9), or pilose (4). Upper glume apex entire, or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/613), or truncate (2/613), or obtuse (57/613), or acute (417/613), or acuminate (159/613), or attenuate (5/613), or setaceously attenuate (3/613); muticous (610/616), or mucronate (5/616), or awned (3/616); 1 -awned (3/3).
    Florets
    Fertile florets bisexual (612), or female (9). Fertile lemma linear (7/616), or lanceolate (327/616), or elliptic (74/616), or oblong (192/616), or ovate (52/616), or orbicular (1/616); membranous (41/616), or chartaceous (563/616), or herbaceous (4/616), or scarious (4/616), or coriaceous (10/616); of similar consistency above (610), or much thinner above (11); of similar consistency on margins (593), or much thinner on margins (28); without keel (591/612), or keeled (21/612); 1-2 -veined (1/613), or 3 -veined (16/613), or 4 -veined (10/613), or 5 -veined (605/613), or 6-7 -veined (4/613). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (594), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (22); eciliate (620), or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (37/63), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (7/63), or distinct (7/63), or prominent (12/63). Lemma surface smooth (369), or granulose (2), or asperulous (22), or scaberulous (132), or scabrous (132), or papillose (5), or punctate (1); glabrous (572), or puberulous (33), or pubescent (37), or pilose (6), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (2). Lemma margins flat (620), or involute (1); eciliate (597), or ciliolate (12), or ciliate (23), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex entire (596), or erose (4), or dentate (27); 2 -fid (25/27), or 3 -fid (2/27), or 4 -fid (1/27); emarginate (12/569), or obtuse (18/569), or acute (330/569), or acuminate (211/569), or attenuate (14/569), or setaceously attenuate (9/569), or cuspidate (2/569); without ornament (616), or scabrous (4), or pubescent (1); muticous (206), or pungent (1), or mucronate (105), or awned (454); 0 -awned (1/452), or 1 -awned (452/452). Principal lemma awn apical (476/505), or subapical (11/505), or from a sinus (19/505); straight (500/505), or curved (1/505), or flexuous (7/505); 0.1-0.7741-19 length of lemma. Palea 0.6-1.018-2 length of lemma; 2 -veined (578/578). Palea keels smooth (356), or scaberulous (107), or scabrous (164); eciliate (560), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or ciliolate (50), or ciliate (8). Palea surface glabrous (571), or puberulous (20), or pubescent (21), or pilose (9). Palea apex entire (3/69), or erose (1/69), or dentate (65/69); muticous (620), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (597/612), or distinct from fertile (15/612); 1 in number (2/2); barren (4/4); rudimentary (1/5), or linear (1/5), or lanceolate (3/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (13/15), or mucronate (2/15), or awned (2/15).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 1 (1/112), or 2 (111/112); membranous (18/18); glabrous (109/112), or ciliate (5/112); entire (3/15), or with a small lateral lobe (3/15), or 2-toothed (11/15), or irregularly toothed (1/15). Anthers 3 (598/598). Ovary glabrous (251/398), or with a few apical hairs (28/398), or pubescent on apex (131/398).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (578/578); linear (5/165), or lanceolate (15/165), or fusiform (3/165), or ellipsoid (103/165), or oblong (15/165), or ovoid (2/165), or obovoid (29/165), or oblanceolate (1/165); dorsally compressed (1/1); plano-convex (1/2), or concavo-convex (1/2). Embryo 0.1-0.1958-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/564), or linear (562/564); 0.4-0.7649-1 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female (11/11); a panicle (3/3). Male spikelets resembling female (11/11).
    Distribution
    Europe (192), or Africa (67), or Temperate Asia (158), or Tropical Asia (49), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (8), or North America (62), or South America (163), or Antarctica (5).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, or more often folded or convolute, sometimes auricled at the base
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several–many-flowered, ± laterally compressed; glumes subequal, narrow, the lower 1(–3)-nerved, the upper 3-nerved; lemmas ± lanceolate, rounded on the back, herbaceous or somewhat indurated, (3–)5-nerved, with an awn or awn-point from the tip, less often awnless or awned from just below the tip; ovary glabrous, or sometimes pubescent above, the styles apical.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-many-flowered, laterally compressed, pedicelled, solitary; rhachilla slender, slightly elongated, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets.
    Florets
    Florets clearly exserted from the glumes, hermaphrodite but the uppermost one usually reduced; callus small, annular, usually glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes subequal, sometimes the inferior smaller, herbaceous to subcoriaceous, keeled; the inferior 1-3-nerved; the superior 3-nerved.
    Lemma
    Lemmas lanceolate, (3-)5-(7)nerved, herbaceous to subcoriaceous, dorsally rounded or rarely somewhat keeled towards the apex, usually awned or with an awn-point from the apex, rarely awnless or awned dorsally from below the apex.
    Palea
    Paleas as long as or slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, usually with the apex 2-dentate, thinly membranous or hyaline, with the keels scaberulous or ciliolate.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, entire or asymmetrically 2-lobed.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous or sometimes with the apex pubescent; styles 2, laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis usually elongate, usually free but tightly enclosed by the lemma and the palea, dorsally compressed and grooved; embryo small, not reaching 1/3 the length of the caryopsis; hilum basal.
    Habit
    Caespitose perennials, often rhizomatous.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae folded or convolute, often setaceous, rarely expanded.
    Ligules
    Ligule scarious or sometimes membranous, usually entire.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 20-57.5-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; bilateral. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; lax. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets (1), or 10-14 fertile florets, or 15-16 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-11.5-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets (1), or 10-14 fertile florets, or 15-16 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-11.5-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong; 0.7-0.825-1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume oblong; 0.7-0.875-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (1), or scaberulous (1). Lemma apex obtuse; muticous, or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid.
    Distribution
    Europe, or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (1).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 20-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; unilateral. Rhachis subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; distant; 2 -rowed. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-6 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2.2-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-6 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2.2-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes collateral; persistent; shorter than spikelet; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0.8 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 1-5 -veined. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume oblong; 0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined. Upper glume apex emarginate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; emarginate; muticous, or mucronate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe, or Africa, or Temperate Asia.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (24), or perennial (2). Culms erect (18/20), or geniculately ascending (10/20), or decumbent (9/20); slender (1/1); 3-27-115 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (6), or linear (20); firm, or flaccid (5).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (20), or composed of racemes (8); exserted (25), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Panicle open (6/20), or contracted (15/20), or spiciform (1/20). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (19/20), or deciduous spikelet clusters (1/20). Racemes single (8/8); linear (6/8), or oblong (2/8), or ovate (2/8); unilateral (7/7). Rhachis angular (1/2), or semiterete (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (2/2); 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/4), or pectinate (3/4); solitary (25), or in pairs (1), or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (25); 3 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels free (24/25), or fused to each other (1/25); linear (5/19), or oblong (10/19), or clavate (4/19), or cuneate (1/19); tip rectangular (2/4), or widened (2/4).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-4-17 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (17), or obovate (2), or cuneate (23); laterally compressed; 1-8.682-21 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (25); deciduous with the pedicel (1/2), or in a cluster with fused pedicels (1/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (25/25). Floret callus brief (24), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (5/8), or pubescent (2/8), or pilose (1/8); obtuse (23), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-4-17 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (17), or obovate (2), or cuneate (23); laterally compressed; 1-8.682-21 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (25); deciduous with the pedicel (1/2), or in a cluster with fused pedicels (1/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (25/25). Floret callus brief (24), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (5/8), or pubescent (2/8), or pilose (1/8); obtuse (23), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (25/25); shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma (18), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (7), or firmer than fertile lemma (1); parallel to lemmas (25), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (15), or lanceolate (8), or oblong (2), or ovate (7); 0.02-0.3723-0.8 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (24), or chartaceous (1); without keels (17), or 1-keeled (9); 0 -veined (5), or 1 -veined (22), or 3 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (24), or distinct (2). Lower glume surface smooth (25), or scabrous (2); glabrous, or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (3/25), or acute (17/25), or acuminate (5/25), or attenuate (2/25); muticous (25), or mucronate (1), or awned (1). Upper glume linear (5), or lanceolate (23), or oblong (1); 0.3-0.8935-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (19), or chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (3); with undifferentiated margins (24), or membranous margins (2); without keels (14), or 1-keeled (12); 1 -veined (8/25), or 2 -veined (4/25), or 3 -veined (21/25), or 4-5 -veined (1/25). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (22/23), or ribbed (1/23). Upper glume surface smooth (23), or scabrous (3); glabrous, or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (3), or acute (7), or acuminate (11), or attenuate (7); muticous (16), or mucronate (1), or awned (10); 1 -awned (10/10).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (24), or elliptic (1), or ovate (1); membranous (4), or chartaceous (21), or coriaceous (1); without keel (22), or keeled (4); 3-4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness, or scaberulous (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (18), or asperulous (2), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (4); glabrous (24), or pubescent (10). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliate (1). Lemma apex acute (2), or acuminate (14), or attenuate (10); muticous (2), or mucronate (1), or awned (25); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn 0.9-1.75-3 length of lemma. Palea 0.6-0.9594-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (22/22). Palea keels smooth (14), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (5); eciliate (25), or ciliolate (1). Palea apex dentate (3/3); muticous (24), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (21), or distinct from fertile (7); 0-1 in number (2/7), or 2 in number (4/7), or 3 in number (6/7), or 4 in number (3/7), or 5-8 in number (1/7); barren (5/5); separate (3/7), or in a clump (4/7); linear (4/5), or lanceolate (1/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (2/7), or awned (5/7).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1/1). Anthers 1 (13/24), or 2 (7/24), or 3 (17/24). Ovary glabrous (16/21), or pubescent on apex (5/21).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (24/24); linear (16/18), or fusiform (2/18); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.1-0.1875-0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (1/19), or linear (18/19); 0.33-0.749-1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (15), or Africa (16), or Temperate Asia (13), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (6), or Pacific (2), or North America (5), or South America (6), or Antarctica (2).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Slender annuals, rarely perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat, convolute or involute
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a ± secund contracted or spike-like panicle
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–13-flowered, laterally compressed, borne upon short thickened pedicels; glumes often very unequal, narrow, the lower nerveless or 1-nerved, the upper 1–3-nerved, longer than the lower; lemmas subulate-lanceolate, rounded on the back with incurved margins, finely 5-nerved, becoming rigid, narrowed into a fine straight awn; paleas 2-keeled, narrow; stamens 1–3.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 20-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; unilateral. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; distant. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension, or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension, or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; lateral; persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 0.1-0.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; coriaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 1.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate. Hilum linear; 0.33-0.66 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe, or Africa, or Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia, or Australasia.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (7), or perennial (1). Stolons absent (7), or present (1). Culms erect (5/6), or geniculately ascending (4/6), or decumbent (1/6); 3-23.25-65 cm long. Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (7). Leaf-blades stiff (2), or firm (6). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (7), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; not compacted (1), or in a multilateral false spike (7); spreading; oblong (5), or cuneate (3); bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (1), or 2 fertile spikelets on each, or 3-4 fertile spikelets on each (4), or 5 fertile spikelets on each (2). Rhachis evident (5), or obsolete (3); deciduous from axis; subterete (5/5); terminating in a spikelet (1/5), or barren extension (4/5); extension subulate (3/4), or bristle-like (1/4). Raceme-bases brief (2), or filiform (2), or linear (4). Spikelets solitary (4), or in pairs (4). Fertile spikelets sessile (7), or pedicelled (1); 2 in the cluster (3/3); subequal (1/4), or the upper smaller (3/4). Pedicels linear (1/1), or oblong (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete (6), or dorsally compressed (2); 2-4.309-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete (6), or dorsally compressed (2); 2-4.309-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (5), or two (5); exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2/5), or ovate (3/5); 0-0.12-0.2 length of upper glume; hyaline (5/5); without keels (3/3); 0 -veined (5/5). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3/5), or distinct (2/5). Lower glume apex acute (3/3). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or ovate (5); 1-1.162-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined (5), or 7 -veined (3). Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface smooth (1), or spinose (1), or with hooked spines (6); glabrous (7), or puberulous (1), or setose (1); with simple hairs (1/2), or tubercle-based hairs (1/2). Upper glume apex acute (5), or acuminate (3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or ovate (5); dorsally compressed (6/6); hyaline (2), or membranous (6); without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous (5), or puberulous (4). Lemma apex acuminate; muticous, or mucronate (1). Palea 1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (7); 2 -veined. Palea apex erose (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (6/6); dorsally compressed (6/6); biconvex (5/5). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (4).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Ascension, Bahamas, Crozet Is., Desventurados Is., Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Haiti, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Marion-Prince Edward, Mauritius, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Tubuai Is., Vietnam, Western Australia, Windward Is.

    Festuca Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2852], Brazil K001077752
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3798], Nepal K001117234
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3798], Nepal K001117235
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3799], Nepal K001117236
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3800], Nepal K001117237
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3801], Nepal K001117238
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [128365], Brazil Vulpia K001077705

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 73 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • St.-Yves in Candollea 4: 65 (1929).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 33 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 73 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 33 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 73 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Candollea 4: 65 (1929)
    • St. Yves in Rev. Bret. Bot. 2: 1 (1927)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 33 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 73 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0