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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Brunfelsia Plum. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical America.


    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Evergreen shrubs or small trees
    Leaves alternate, simple, hairs usually simple, occasionally branched
    Inflorescences usually dense, rarely lax terminal or axillary many-flowered cymes, or reduced to a single flower, subsessile; pedicels erect or pendent, subtended by linear to lanceolate, caducous bracts; flowers slightly zygomophic with bilateral symmetry
    Calyx tubular or campanulate, with 5 lobes; usually shorter than corolla tube
    Corolla hypocrateriform, basal tube cylindrical straight or slightly curved, dilated above towards five broad recurved lobes with quincuncial-imbricate aestivation, open at mouth which often thickened into fleshy white ring
    Stamens four, didynamous, alternating with upper three corolla lobes, usually included, occasionally upper pair exserted, both pairs curved at apex to project anthers towards back of corolla tube; filaments fused to upper quarter of corolla tube, unequal, lower posterior pair shorter than the upper lateral pair, glabrous, becoming thicker and flattened at point of fusion; anthers usually all fertile, rarely upper pair reduced, elongate, medifixed, oblong or reniform, onecelled dehiscing by single slit
    Ovary conical to ovoid, bilocular; ovules numerous; disc nectiferous, annular, smooth; style filiform below, erect or curved and broadened beneath the stigma, glabrous, usually included; stigma broadly dilated, shallowly or deeply bilobed or capitate, often surpassed and partially enclosed by upper lateral anthers. Fruit capsular or sub-baccate, fleshy or coriacous, indehiscent or often splitting open by two entire valves, scarcely or partially enclosed by persistent accrescent coriaceous calyx
    Seeds deeply reticulate, large, few to many.
    The history and classification of this genus together with its inter-generic and inter-specific relationships and the distiguishing morphological features are extensively dealt with by Plowman (1998). The presence, location, degree and type of indumentum can vary greatly in this genus, even in the same species. Moreover, Brunfelsia fruits often appear baccate and have been described as berries in numerous taxonomic descriptions of these species. They are, in fact, capsules which are either indehiscent or split into two smooth or rough valves (cf. Plowman, 1998). Some of the diagnostic features given below have been adapted from Plowman (1998), largely due to the paucity of herbarium material of this genus, not only collected from Africa but also from the Americas. ± 46 species of shrubs and small trees from South and Central America, many of which are cultivated for their ornamental and medicinal value.



    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Tanzania, Uganda, Windward Is., Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Brunfelsia Plum. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Claussen, P. [s.n.], Brazil K001073492
    Jan 1, 1990 Harley, R.M. [25639], Brazil K001073487
    Jan 1, 1990 Harley, R.M. [25639], Brazil K001073489
    Martinelli, G. [178], Brazil K001073490
    Chagas e Silva, F. [143], Brazil K000982098
    Fiaschi, P. [3527], Brazil K001073491
    Forzza, R.C. [2912], Brazil K001073488
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132441


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.


    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Gen. Solanaceae: 82–85 (2001)
    • Fieldiana Bot., n.s. 39: 1–133 (1998);
    • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 475–491 (1979)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 198 (1852);
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 87 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 191 (1753)


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.