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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Oplismenus P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to S. Central Europe and Caucasus.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (4). Culms erect (1), or geniculately ascending (1), or prostrate (6); robust (1/1); 10-53.28-150 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (4/4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (6). Leaf-blades lanceolate, or ovate (6); herbaceous (6), or chartaceous (1). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (1), or with obscure cross veins (6).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; linear (6), or cuneate (1); unilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets (1), or many spikelets (6); bearing 2-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis angular. Spikelet packing crowded (1), or contiguous (4), or lax (2); 2 -rowed (3/3). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; subequal, or the lower smaller. Pedicels oblong (6/6).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate (1); laterally compressed; 2-3.464-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate (1); laterally compressed; 2-3.464-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet, or reaching apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.9-0.9857-1 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous (4), or pubescent (5), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex acute; muticous (1), or awned (6). Upper glume ovate; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined (6/6), or 6-7 -veined (5/6). Upper glume surface glabrous (4), or pubescent (5), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (6), or acute (1); muticous (5), or mucronate (2), or awned (5); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea, or without significant palea (6). Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; membranous; 7 -veined, or 8-9 -veined (6), or 10-11 -veined (5); emarginate (5/6), or acute (1/6); muticous (1), or mucronate (6). Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined (1/6), or 7 -veined (5/6). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute; without ornament (1), or laterally pinched (6). Palea involute; coriaceous; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Hilum linear (1/1); 0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (5), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (3), or North America (4), or South America (4).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials; culms weak, trailing or scrambling, often with aerial roots from the nodes, the internodes mostly with a decurrent villous line adaxial to the subtending leaf
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades broadly linear to ovate, often minutely cross-veined; ligule short, membranous, with ciliate fringe
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes borne along a central axis; rhachis narrow, bearing paired spikelets
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate to oblong with dorsal or weak lateral compression; glumes subequal, 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet, both or at least the lower awned; lower floret barren (rarely ♂), the lemma acute or with a short awn-point, usually without a palea; upper lemma subcoriaceous, smooth, shining, its margins inrolled and broadly clasping the palea, acute and indistinctly crested at the tip; palea sharply acute
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of short racemes along a central axis, the spikelets in pairs (but the inferior often reduced).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets laterally compressed, lanceolate.
    Glume
    Glumes 1/2–3/4 length of spikelet, the inferior of both awned.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma dorsally compressed, coriaceous with involute margins.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., South Carolina, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil Northeast, Hawaii, Maryland, Nauru, St.Helena

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Oplismenus P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8677] K001131188
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8678] K001131189
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8677], India K001131187

    Bibliography

    First published in Fl. Oware 2: 14 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • F.T.A. 9: 630 (1920).
    • Fl. Oware 2: 14 (1808)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • U. Scholz, Monograph Oplis. (1981).
    • Davey & Clayton in Kew Bull. 33: 147–157 (1978)
    • Fl. Owar. 2: 14 (1810).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Davey & Clayton in K.B. 33: 147–157 (1978)
    • Fl. Owar. 2: 14 (1810), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0