1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Dendrocalamus Nees

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or short (61); pachymorph (61/61). Culms erect (54/58), or arching (1/58), or leaning (5/58), or scandent (2/58); 150-1424-3300 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (7/26), or with prop roots (1/26), or rooting from lower nodes (4/26), or with root dots on the nodes (1/26), or with aerial roots from the nodes (19/26). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes flush with internodes (5/8), or swollen (3/8). Lateral branches suffrutescent (1), or dendroid (61). Branch complement one (2/30), or three (1/30), or several (11/30), or many (16/30); in a horizontal line (1/2), or in an irregular line (1/2); with subequal branches (3/20), or 1 branch dominant (14/20), or 2 branches dominant (2/20), or 3 branches dominant (4/20); thinner than stem (4/4). Culm-sheaths persistent (3/35), or tardily deciduous (2/35), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (2/35), or deciduous (30/35); without auricles (19/39), or auriculate (21/39). Culm-sheath blade linear (2/46), or lanceolate (24/46), or narrowly ovate (2/46), or ovate (11/46), or triangular (9/46); constricted at base (2/10), or narrower than sheath (6/10), or as wide as sheath at base (2/10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (54), or erect (2), or falcate (8). Ligule an eciliate membrane (55), or a ciliolate membrane (7), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (5), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (59). Leaf-blades persistent (60), or deciduous at the ligule (2); linear (4), or lanceolate (41), or elliptic (1), or oblong (23), or ovate (2); herbaceous (59), or chartaceous (3). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (7/7). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (48), or with obscure cross veins (4), or with distinct cross veins (10).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous (52/52); clustered at the nodes (52/52); in globose clusters (40/52), or stellate clusters (5/52), or oblong clusters (3/52), or untidy tufts (4/52); with glumaceous subtending bracts (50/52), or spathaceous subtending bracts (2/52); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (52/52); leafy between clusters (1/47), or leafless between clusters (39/47), or leafless between branches (8/47). Fertile spikelets sessile (52/52).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1-4-10 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (49/51), or with diminished florets at the apex (4/51). Spikelets lanceolate (22/52), or elliptic (2/52), or oblong (3/52), or ovate (28/52); laterally compressed (50/52), or subterete (2/52); 3.5-10.82-35 mm long; breaking up at maturity (52/52); disarticulating below each fertile floret (52/52). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (51/52), or elongated between glumes (1/52); suppressed between florets (42/47), or definite (5/47).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1-4-10 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (49/51), or with diminished florets at the apex (4/51). Spikelets lanceolate (22/52), or elliptic (2/52), or oblong (3/52), or ovate (28/52); laterally compressed (50/52), or subterete (2/52); 3.5-10.82-35 mm long; breaking up at maturity (52/52); disarticulating below each fertile floret (52/52). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (51/52), or elongated between glumes (1/52); suppressed between florets (42/47), or definite (5/47).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (7/52), or one the upper absent or obscure (1/52), or two (31/52), or several (23/52); persistent (52/52); shorter than spikelet (52/52). Lower glume ovate (32/34), or orbicular (2/34); 0.7-0.875-1 length of upper glume; chartaceous (25/28), or coriaceous (3/28); without keels (24/27), or 1-keeled (3/27); 9-10 -veined (1/5), or 11-12 -veined (2/5), or 13 -veined (3/5), or 14-155 -veined (1/5). Lower glume surface glabrous (41/49), or puberulous (4/49), or pubescent (4/49). Lower glume apex obtuse (3/27), or acute (22/27), or acuminate (2/27); muticous (29/34), or mucronate (5/34). Upper glume lanceolate (1/44), or ovate (40/44), or orbicular (1/44), or oblate (1/44), or obovate (1/44); 0.6-0.8-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (35/36), or coriaceous (1/36); without keels (32/35), or 1-keeled (3/35); 5 -veined (1/7), or 9 -veined (3/7), or 10-12 -veined (2/7), or 13-14 -veined (1/7), or 15 -veined (2/7), or 16 -veined (1/7). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (50/52), or ciliolate (1/52), or ciliate (1/52). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (3/3). Upper glume surface glabrous (44/52), or puberulous (4/52), or pubescent (4/52). Upper glume apex obtuse (4/39), or acute (21/39), or acuminate (14/39); muticous (36/44), or mucronate (8/44).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (1/1). Fertile lemma ovate (44/52), or orbicular (6/52), or oblate (1/52), or obovate (1/52); without auricles (51/52), or auriculate at base (1/52); membranous (1/52), or chartaceous (49/52), or coriaceous (2/52); without keel (50/52), or keeled (2/52); 7-9 -veined (1/9), or 11 -veined (1/9), or 12-13 -veined (2/9), or 14-15 -veined (1/9), or 16-17 -veined (4/9), or 18-19 -veined (3/9), or 20 -veined (2/9), or 25 -veined (1/9). Lemma surface smooth (51/52), or scaberulous (1/52); unwrinkled (50/52), or rugose (2/52); glabrous (38/52), or puberulous (6/52), or pubescent (5/52), or pilose (4/52). Lemma margins flat (51/52), or convolute (1/52); eciliate (31/52), or ciliolate (2/52), or ciliate (19/52). Lemma apex obtuse (5/50), or acute (24/50), or acuminate (19/50), or attenuate (1/50), or apiculate (1/50); muticous (32/52), or pungent (1/52), or mucronate (18/52), or awned (4/52); 1 -awned (4/4). Principal lemma awn attenuate (21/22), or pungent (1/22). Palea 0.9-0.975-1 length of lemma; membranous (4/52), or chartaceous (48/52); 2-3 -veined (1/16), or 4 -veined (5/16), or 5 -veined (4/16), or 6 -veined (5/16), or 7 -veined (6/16), or 8 -veined (3/16), or 9 -veined (2/16); without keels (6/52), or 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels (46/52), or 2-keeled (2/52). Palea keels eciliate (16/48), or puberulous (1/48), or ciliolate (10/48), or ciliate (21/48). Palea surface glabrous (39/52), or puberulous (4/52), or pubescent (4/52), or pilose (5/52). Palea apex entire (1/5), or dentate (5/5). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (2/2); barren (3/3).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (48/49), or 1 (3/49), or 2 (2/49), or 3 (1/49); glabrous (2/4), or ciliate (2/4). Anthers 3-5 (1/52), or 6 (52/52). Stigmas 1 (50/52), or 2 (3/52), or 3 (2/52); plumose (36/52), or pubescent (16/52). Ovary unappendaged (25/52), or umbonate (27/52); glabrous (3/34), or with a few apical hairs (1/34), or pubescent on apex (23/34), or pubescent all over (9/34).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (51/51); oblong (2/10), or ovoid (6/10), or orbicular (1/10), or obovoid (2/10); apex rostrate (2/2). Hilum linear (1/1); 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (31), or Tropical Asia (41), or Pacific (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Bahamas, Bismarck Archipelago, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Honduras, Madagascar, Mauritius, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, Ogasawara-shoto, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Dendrocalamus Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 5, 1991 Widjaja, E.A. [EAW3995], Sumatera K000795398
    Banziger, H. [1756], Thailand K000795477
    Dransfield, S. [SD1420], Thailand K000795397
    Dransfield, S. [SD1194], Thailand K000795400
    Newman, M. [182], Vietnam K000795396
    Soderstrom [1765], Sri Lanka K000795401
    Wong, K.M. et al. [2868], Thailand K000795399

    First published in Linnaea 9: 476 (1835)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0