1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Oxytenanthera Munro

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets sessile, 1-4-flowered, with the uppermost floret hermaphrodite, the lower sterile, terete or slightly laterally compressed, deciduous at maturity; rhachilla-internodes very short, not produced beyond the uppermost floret.
    Glume
    Glumes 2 (rarely 3), 17-30-nerved, with transverse veinlets, dorsally rounded, chartaceous to coriaceous; the inferior one shorter than the superior.
    Lemma
    Lemmas exceeding the glumes, progressively increasing in length towards the apex, 26-32-nerved, with transverse veinlets, dorsally rounded, with the apex pungent.
    Palea
    Paleas 16-19-nerved, the ones in the lower florets 2-keeled and dorsally concave, the one in the uppermost floret without keels and convolute.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules usually absent.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6, with the anthers mucronate; filaments connate.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; style hollow; stigmas 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with fused pericarp, narrowly fusiform, crowned with persistent base of the styles.
    Habit
    Robust tree-like bamboos, with stout stoloniferous rhizomes.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae finally disarticulating from the sheath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of contracted clusters of spikelets terminating leafy branchlets; each cluster in the axil of a papery sheath with a short lamina.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Bamboo with woody culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades finally disarticulating from the sheath
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of dense globose spikelet-clusters at the tips of leafy branchlets, each cluster arising in the axil of a short-bladed papery sheath, the individual spikelets subtended by several short papery bracts, these often with secondary spikelets in their axils
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–4-flowered, the upper florets hermaphrodite, the lower barren, terete or slightly laterally compressed, falling entire at maturity, the rhachilla very short and not prolonged; glumes rounded on the back, papyraceous to coriaceous, 17–30-nerved with cross-nerves; lemmas exceeding the glumes, progressively increasing in length upwards, rounded on the back, convolute, 26–32-nerved with cross-nerves, the tip pungent; palea 16–19-nerved, the uppermost keelless and convolute, the lower (if present) 2-keeled and concave on the back; lodicules usually absent; stamens 6, anthers mucronate, filaments united; ovary glabrous, the style hollow and bearing 3 stigmas
    Fruits
    Grain with fused pericarp.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 300-1000 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement many; in an irregular line; with 1 branch dominant. Culm-sheaths without auricles. Culm-sheath blade linear. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; lanceolate. Leaf-blade venation with obscure cross veins.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous; stellate, or clustered at the nodes; in stellate clusters; with glumaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet; leafless between clusters.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-3 basal sterile florets; 1-2 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed, or subterete; 15-40 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-3 basal sterile florets; 1-2 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed, or subterete; 15-40 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong, or ovate; 0.8 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 17-30 -veined. Lower glume surface hispidulous. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume oblong, or ovate; 0.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 17-30 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume surface hispidulous. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; coriaceous; 26-32 -veined; acuminate; awned. Fertile lemma elliptic; coriaceous; without keel; 26-32 -veined. Lemma surface hispid. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn pungent. Palea tightly convolute around flower; scarious; 16-19 -veined; without keels, or 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 6. Stigmas 3; papillose. Ovary with a steeple-like appendage; glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Africa.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Oxytenanthera Munro appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1764], Sri Lanka K000743023
    Willan, R.G.M. [s.n.], Malawi K000743018

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 126 (1868)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26: 126 (1868).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26: 126 (1868).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Holttum in Phytomorph. 6: 73 (1956)
    • in Trans. Linn. Soc. 26: 126 (1868)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0