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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Type
Lectotype, chosen by Hansen (1993), from Ghana.
Morphology General Habit
Plant to 18 cm tall Plant to 18 cm tall.
Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizomes 3–8 mm diameter, pubescent Rhizomes 3–8 mm diameter, pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 0–13 cm tall, glabrous to pubescent (particularly in axils of scales); scales 4–10 × 2–5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute, margins sometimes irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, glabrous Peduncles 0–13 cm tall, glabrous to pubescent (particularly in axils of scales); scales 4–10 × 2–5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute, margins sometimes irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence heads 2.5–5 cm long, opening to 1.5–5.5 cm broad Inflorescence heads 2.5–5 cm long, opening to 1.5–5.5 cm broad.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream. Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform.
Ecology
Forests, thickets and adjacent savanna on a variety of hosts; 230–1676 m.
Distribution
ZAM B, ZAM W Zambia Tropical Africa down to Angola and Zambia
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Tuber irregularly shaped from subspherical up to 8–10 cm diameter to elongate, 5–17 × 1.3–4 cm, densely pubescent. Tuber irregularly shaped from subspherical up to 8–10 cm diameter to elongate, 5–17 × 1.3–4 cm, densely pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 5–30 × 3–11 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, margins irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, becoming smaller towards base of involucre and continuous with scales on peduncle, pinkish-crimson turning brown with age. Bracts 5–30 × 3–11 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, margins irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, becoming smaller towards base of involucre and continuous with scales on peduncle, pinkish-crimson turning brown with age
sex Male
Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream.
sex Female
Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescence 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, dull reddish-black to crimson, looking like a strawberry. Infructescence 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, dull reddish-black to crimson, looking like a strawberry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 0.75–1.5 mm long, ellipsoid, creamy. Seeds 0.75–1.5 mm long, ellipsoid, creamy.

[FTEA]

Balanophoraceae, B. Hansen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993

Morphology General Habit
Tuber trailing 10–15 cm. below soil surface, 20 cm. or more long, 0.6–0.8 (1–1.5 in swollen part) cm. in diameter, minutely pilose.
Morphology Stem
Inflorescence-bearing stems appearing a few cm. above soil-surface with their bright red, flowering upper parts, 5–20 cm. long from tuber.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves triangular-ovate, lower ± 8 × 4 mm., upper 20 × 8 mm., forming an involucre around the spadix.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 2.8–3 × 3.2–3.9 cm., ♂ spadices depressed-hemispherical, ♀ spadices hemispherical.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers apparently ebracteate or ♂ subtended by minute reduced bracts. Male flowers, including pedicel, up to 1.5 cm. long with perianth-segments ± 3 mm. long and synandrium 5–6 mm. long. Female flowers 3 mm. long, ovary with perianth ± 2 mm., style 1–1.5 mm.
sex Male
Male flowers, including pedicel, up to 1.5 cm. long with perianth-segments ± 3 mm. long and synandrium 5–6 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flowers 3 mm. long, ovary with perianth ± 2 mm., style 1–1.5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescence dark red, fleshy, ovoid, with spadix strongly swelling above involucre.
Figures
Fig. 2.
Habitat
In rain-forest and adjacent woodland, parasitizing roots of Funtumia africana ( Apocynaceae) , Bridelia micrantha ( Euphorbiaceae) , Acacia mildbraedii, Baphia nitida, Pentachlethra eetveldeana ( Leguminosae) , Antiaris africana ( Moraceae) , Myrianthus arboreus ( Cecropiaceae); 750–1700 m.
Distribution
K5 T1 T4 U2 U4 tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia and southwards to N. Angola and Zambia

[FWTA]

Balanophoraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncle and flower-heads with crimson or pink scales, turning brown; only creamy white pollen and anthers show in the open flower-heads
Ecology
Common in forest, rare in savannah; parasitic on many different hosts.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

Thonningia sanguinea Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2006 Onana, J.-M. [2927], Cameroon K000339023
Jan 1, 2004 Sidwell, K. [355], Cameroon K000461001
Sep 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [401], Cameroon K000008441
Sep 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [381], Cameroon K000008440
Jan 1, 1997 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1468], Cameroon K000011501
Jan 1, 1997 Acworth, J.M. [346], Cameroon K000011498
Jan 1, 1997 Fraser, P. [411], Cameroon K000011499
Sep 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7132], Cameroon K000008439
Sep 1, 1996 Sebsebe [5040], Cameroon K000008438
Jan 1, 1995 Akogo, M. [65], Cameroon K000519000
Jan 1, 1995 von Rege, I. [4], Cameroon K000011503
Jan 1, 1995 Hunt, L. V. [49], Cameroon K000027589
Jan 1, 1995 Hurst, J. [28], Cameroon K000011502
Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [367], Cameroon K000011500
36622.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [5129], Ghana 17009.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [3875], Zambia 17565.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [3745], Zambia 17569.000
Eggeling, W.J. [4040], Uganda 17013.000
Onochie, C.F. [35103], Nigeria 27791.000
Fanshawe, D.B. [2228], Zimbabwe 17014.000
Osmaston, H.A. [200], Uganda 17011.000
Small, D. [752], Sierra Leone 17570.000
Wood, G.H.S. [911], Uganda 17010.000
Maitland, T.D. [376b], Cameroon K000180493
Adams, Ghana 17012.000
Adams, Ghana 17568.000
Kalbreyer, F. [105], Nigeria 17567.000 Unknown type material
Benton, P. [2], Ghana 18933.000
Thorold, C.A. [605-1949], Ghana 22048.000
Robey, M.E., Sierra Leone 35988.000
Johnson, W.P. [521], Ghana 5186.000 Unknown type material
Migeod, F. [117], Cameroon K000180492
Monteiro, J.J., Angola Thonningia angolensis 29047.271 Unknown type material
Dane, M.T. [16], Uganda Thonningia ugandensis 40653.000 Unknown type material

First published in Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 125 (1810)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Bullock in Kew Bull. 1948: 366, q.v. for full references and synonymy
  • Staner in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 395.
  • F.T.A. 6, 1: 438
  • in Skrivt. Nat. Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • F.T.E.A., Balanophoraceae: 3, fig. 2 (1993). TAB. 52.
  • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 106: 368 (1986)
  • Hepper, W. Afr. Herb. Isert Thonning: 29 (1976).
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 1: 667 (1958).
  • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1948: 366 (1949).
  • F.C.B. 1: 395 (1948).
  • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 1: 108 (1948).
  • Rev. Gén. Bot. 54: 201 (1947) as ‘coccinea’.
  • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 16b: 337, fig. 170 (1935).
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Afrikas [Veg. Erde 9] 3, 1: 111, fig. 73 (1915).
  • F.T.A. 6, 1: 438 (1911).
  • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 1: 263 (1889).
  • Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 29, 42, t. 3 (1856).
  • Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • B. Hansen in Fl. Ethiopia 3: 384 (1990).
  • B. Hansen in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 106: 368 (1986)
  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 338 (1974).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 667 (1958).
  • Bullock in KB. 3: 366 (1949).
  • Staner in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 395 (1948).
  • Hemsl. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 438 (1911).
  • Hook.f. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 22: 29, 42, t. 3 (1856).
  • Vahl in Skr. Naturhist-Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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