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  1. Family: Balanophoraceae Rich.
    1. Genus: Thonningia Vahl
      1. Thonningia sanguinea Vahl

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Lectotype, chosen by Hansen (1993), from Ghana.
    Habit
    Plant to 18 cm tall Plant to 18 cm tall.
    Rhizomes
    Rhizomes 3–8 mm diameter, pubescent Rhizomes 3–8 mm diameter, pubescent.
    Peduncles
    Peduncles 0–13 cm tall, glabrous to pubescent (particularly in axils of scales); scales 4–10 × 2–5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute, margins sometimes irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, glabrous Peduncles 0–13 cm tall, glabrous to pubescent (particularly in axils of scales); scales 4–10 × 2–5 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute, margins sometimes irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence heads 2.5–5 cm long, opening to 1.5–5.5 cm broad Inflorescence heads 2.5–5 cm long, opening to 1.5–5.5 cm broad.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream. Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform.
    Ecology
    Forests, thickets and adjacent savanna on a variety of hosts; 230–1676 m.
    Distribution
    ZAM B, ZAM W Zambia Tropical Africa down to Angola and Zambia
    Tubers
    Tuber irregularly shaped from subspherical up to 8–10 cm diameter to elongate, 5–17 × 1.3–4 cm, densely pubescent. Tuber irregularly shaped from subspherical up to 8–10 cm diameter to elongate, 5–17 × 1.3–4 cm, densely pubescent
    Bracts
    Bracts 5–30 × 3–11 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, margins irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, becoming smaller towards base of involucre and continuous with scales on peduncle, pinkish-crimson turning brown with age. Bracts 5–30 × 3–11 mm, ovate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, margins irregularly and obscurely serrulate, rigid, becoming smaller towards base of involucre and continuous with scales on peduncle, pinkish-crimson turning brown with age
    Male
    Male flowers 8–15 mm long; perianth segments 2–4, lanceolate, acute; stamens 2–6 in cylindrical synandrium, anthers whitish-cream.
    Female
    Female flowers: perianth 1–1.5 mm long; style 2–3 mm long, filiform.
    Infructescences
    Infructescence 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, dull reddish-black to crimson, looking like a strawberry. Infructescence 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, dull reddish-black to crimson, looking like a strawberry
    Seeds
    Seeds 0.75–1.5 mm long, ellipsoid, creamy. Seeds 0.75–1.5 mm long, ellipsoid, creamy.
    [FTEA]

    Balanophoraceae, B. Hansen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993

    Habit
    Tuber trailing 10–15 cm. below soil surface, 20 cm. or more long, 0.6–0.8 (1–1.5 in swollen part) cm. in diameter, minutely pilose.
    Stem
    Inflorescence-bearing stems appearing a few cm. above soil-surface with their bright red, flowering upper parts, 5–20 cm. long from tuber.
    Leaves
    Leaves triangular-ovate, lower ± 8 × 4 mm., upper 20 × 8 mm., forming an involucre around the spadix.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 2.8–3 × 3.2–3.9 cm., ♂ spadices depressed-hemispherical, ♀ spadices hemispherical.
    Flowers
    Flowers apparently ebracteate or ♂ subtended by minute reduced bracts. Male flowers, including pedicel, up to 1.5 cm. long with perianth-segments ± 3 mm. long and synandrium 5–6 mm. long. Female flowers 3 mm. long, ovary with perianth ± 2 mm., style 1–1.5 mm.
    Male
    Male flowers, including pedicel, up to 1.5 cm. long with perianth-segments ± 3 mm. long and synandrium 5–6 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers 3 mm. long, ovary with perianth ± 2 mm., style 1–1.5 mm.
    Infructescences
    Infructescence dark red, fleshy, ovoid, with spadix strongly swelling above involucre.
    Figures
    Fig. 2.
    Habitat
    In rain-forest and adjacent woodland, parasitizing roots of Funtumia africana ( Apocynaceae) , Bridelia micrantha ( Euphorbiaceae) , Acacia mildbraedii, Baphia nitida, Pentachlethra eetveldeana ( Leguminosae) , Antiaris africana ( Moraceae) , Myrianthus arboreus ( Cecropiaceae); 750–1700 m.
    Distribution
    K5 T1 T4 U2 U4 tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia and southwards to N. Angola and Zambia
    [FWTA]

    Balanophoraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Inflorescences
    Peduncle and flower-heads with crimson or pink scales, turning brown; only creamy white pollen and anthers show in the open flower-heads
    Ecology
    Common in forest, rare in savannah; parasitic on many different hosts.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Thonningia sanguinea Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2006 Onana, J.-M. [2927], Cameroon K000339023
    Jan 1, 2004 Sidwell, K. [355], Cameroon K000461001
    Sep 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [401], Cameroon K000008441
    Sep 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [381], Cameroon K000008440
    Jan 1, 1997 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1468], Cameroon K000011501
    Jan 1, 1997 Acworth, J.M. [346], Cameroon K000011498
    Jan 1, 1997 Fraser, P. [411], Cameroon K000011499
    Sep 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7132], Cameroon K000008439
    Sep 1, 1996 Sebsebe [5040], Cameroon K000008438
    Jan 1, 1995 Akogo, M. [65], Cameroon K000519000
    Jan 1, 1995 von Rege, I. [4], Cameroon K000011503
    Jan 1, 1995 Hunt, L. V. [49], Cameroon K000027589
    Jan 1, 1995 Hurst, J. [28], Cameroon K000011502
    Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [367], Cameroon K000011500
    36622.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [5129], Ghana 17009.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3875], Zambia 17565.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3745], Zambia 17569.000
    Eggeling, W.J. [4040], Uganda 17013.000
    Onochie, C.F. [35103], Nigeria 27791.000
    Fanshawe, D.B. [2228], Zimbabwe 17014.000
    Osmaston, H.A. [200], Uganda 17011.000
    Small, D. [752], Sierra Leone 17570.000
    Wood, G.H.S. [911], Uganda 17010.000
    Maitland, T.D. [376b], Cameroon K000180493
    Adams, Ghana 17012.000
    Adams, Ghana 17568.000
    Kalbreyer, F. [105], Nigeria 17567.000 Unknown type material
    Benton, P. [2], Ghana 18933.000
    Thorold, C.A. [605-1949], Ghana 22048.000
    Robey, M.E., Sierra Leone 35988.000
    Johnson, W.P. [521], Ghana 5186.000 Unknown type material
    Migeod, F. [117], Cameroon K000180492
    Monteiro, J.J., Angola Thonningia angolensis 29047.271 Unknown type material
    Dane, M.T. [16], Uganda Thonningia ugandensis 40653.000 Unknown type material

    Bibliography

    First published in Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 125 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bullock in Kew Bull. 1948: 366, q.v. for full references and synonymy
    • Staner in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 395.
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 438
    • in Skrivt. Nat. Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • F.T.E.A., Balanophoraceae: 3, fig. 2 (1993). TAB. 52.
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 106: 368 (1986)
    • Hepper, W. Afr. Herb. Isert Thonning: 29 (1976).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 1: 667 (1958).
    • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1948: 366 (1949).
    • F.C.B. 1: 395 (1948).
    • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 1: 108 (1948).
    • Rev. Gén. Bot. 54: 201 (1947) as ‘coccinea’.
    • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 16b: 337, fig. 170 (1935).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Afrikas [Veg. Erde 9] 3, 1: 111, fig. 73 (1915).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 438 (1911).
    • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 1: 263 (1889).
    • Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 29, 42, t. 3 (1856).
    • Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • B. Hansen in Fl. Ethiopia 3: 384 (1990).
    • B. Hansen in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 106: 368 (1986)
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 338 (1974).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 667 (1958).
    • Bullock in KB. 3: 366 (1949).
    • Staner in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 395 (1948).
    • Hemsl. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 438 (1911).
    • Hook.f. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 22: 29, 42, t. 3 (1856).
    • Vahl in Skr. Naturhist-Selsk. 6: 125, t. 6 (1810).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/