1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Physalis L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is America.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, usually much-branched, sometimes woody basally.
    Stem
    Stems sometimes viscid, hairs simple, branched or stellate, glandular or eglandular
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, usually composed of a single flower, occasionally 2–4(–7) flowered fascicles; flowers erect to pendent, hermaphrodite
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate to cupulate, actinomorphic with 5 lobes or 5-partite with short lobes; enlarged and persistent in fruit when basally invaginated
    Corolla
    Corolla broadly campanulate to rotate or funnelform, rarely urceolate, usually actinomorphic, often with dark basal spots and densely pubescent inner ring alternating with stamens internally, margin entire or tube terminating in 5 short lobes
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, usually equal and exserted; filaments fused to lower part of corolla tube where broader, glabrous or sparsely pilose; anthers equal or unequal, oblong, bilobed, basi- or dorsi-fixed, sometimes convergent around stigma
    Ovary
    Ovary superior, bilocular, ovules numerous, placentation axile; disc annular, occasionally absent; style filiform, usually glabrous and exserted; stigma discoid-capitate, bilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit a berry, mature pericarp thin and translucent, enclosed by enlarged and inflated accrescent chartaceous usually reticulately-veined bladder-like urceolate calyx which 5-angled or prominently 10-ribbed, sometimes with 5 basal auricles, often brightly coloured, the mouth usually almost completely closed by connivent calyx lobes or teeth
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, vesicular to foveolate, sclerotic granules absent.
    Note
    A few species are cultivated world-wide for their ornamental showy calyces, or for their edible berries and they are collectively known as Husk-tomatoes or Ground-cherries. Hepper (in Fl. Ceylon, 4: 391 (1987)) described Physalis as being an extremely puzzling genus of considerable taxonomic and nomenclatural complexity, while Symon (in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 3(2): 149 (1981)) thought that many of the nomenclatural problems would remain insoluble until African and Asian names and taxa were studied and compared with those in America. Older literature contains numerous synonyms for each of the Physalis species found in the floral region; where the names concerned have not been encountered on any East African material, they have not been included in this treatment. With the exception of P. peruviana, it is often difficult to determine which species is actually being described in many of the Floras cited, and the associated nomenclature is extremely complex. It is clearly a genus in urgent need of worldwide revision.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Herbs or more rarely shrubs, sometimes sarmentose, glabrous to hairy; indumentum varied and often intermixed, the hairs multicellular (“jointed”) and short, unicellular, simple or occasionally stellate, often glandular or viscid, more rarely branched, also stipitate or sessile glands; rhizomatous structures sometimes present
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, alternate, sometimes 2 or 3 appearing together, one larger than the others, petiolate, entire to coarsely lobed, rarely pinnatifid Leaves solitary, alternate, sometimes 2 or 3 appearing together, one larger than the others, petiolate, entire to coarsely lobed, rarely pinnatifid.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, extra-axillary or appearing axillary (elsewhere occasionally up to several flowers in small, axillary fascicles or rarely in terminal pseudoracemes), actinomorphic. Flowers solitary, extra-axillary or appearing axillary (elsewhere occasionally up to several flowers in small, axillary fascicles or rarely in terminal pseudoracemes), actinomorphic; pedicel slender, often elongated and drooping or nodding in fruit; bracts obsolete.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel slender, often elongated and drooping or nodding in fruit; bracts obsolete
    Calyx
    Calyx often as long as the corolla tube, campanulate or sometimes tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed to sub-truncate, the lobes if present as long as or shorter than the tube, often splitting at the sutures, conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit much enlarged and usually bladdery-inflated, often splitting at the sutures, loosely enclosing it (or elsewhere nearly so), 5- or 10-angled to -ribbed, sometimes ± terete, reticulate, often invaginated basally, contracted apically with a small opening surrounded by the lobes, remaining membranous or becoming chartaceous Calyx often as long as the corolla tube, campanulate or sometimes tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed to sub-truncate, the lobes if present as long as or shorter than the tube, often splitting at the sutures, conniving at the apex, with valvate aestivation; in fruit much enlarged and usually bladdery-inflated, often splitting at the sutures, loosely enclosing it (or elsewhere nearly so), 5- or 10-angled to -ribbed, sometimes ± terete, reticulate, often invaginated basally, contracted apically with a small opening surrounded by the lobes, remaining membranous or becoming chartaceous.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellowish to whitish, often blotched with 5 darker markings, campanulate, rarely infundibular-rotate (or elsewhere shortly infundibular); tube short, ± hairy inside above insertion of stamens and ± glabrous; limb plicate, subentire, sinuate, 5-angled or shortly and widely 5-lobed (to exceptionally 5-parted elsewhere), sometimes ± reflexed; lobes ovate-deltate (to subulate elsewhere), with imbricate-quincuncial aestivation Corolla yellowish to whitish, often blotched with 5 darker markings, campanulate, rarely infundibular-rotate (or elsewhere shortly infundibular); tube short, ± hairy inside above insertion of stamens and ± glabrous; limb plicate, subentire, sinuate, 5-angled or shortly and widely 5-lobed (to exceptionally 5-parted elsewhere), sometimes ± reflexed; lobes ovate-deltate (to subulate elsewhere), with imbricate-quincuncial aestivation.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, mostly ± equal, usually inserted near the base of the corolla tube, ± included or slightly exserted; filaments slender (to nearly as wide as the anthers elsewhere), often ± straight, pubescent or glabrous; anthers oblong or linear-oblong to ovate in outline, straight or occasionally twisting and curling after anthesis, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits Stamens 5, mostly ± equal, usually inserted near the base of the corolla tube, ± included or slightly exserted; filaments slender (to nearly as wide as the anthers elsewhere), often ± straight, pubescent or glabrous; anthers oblong or linear-oblong to ovate in outline, straight or occasionally twisting and curling after anthesis, free or sometimes conniving, attached on the lower part of the back or at the base between the thecae, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
    Disc
    Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, to none Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, to none.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules hemicampylotropous, few–numerous in each locule on a much enlarged, subglobose placenta adnate to the dissepiment near the axis.
    Style
    Style slender to stout.
    Stigma
    Stigma capitate to nearly truncate, sometimes 2-lobed to -lamellate, included or exserted
    Distribution
    Genus with c. 90 species, mostly centred in the warm regions of America mainly in Mexico; widely distributed in warm and temperate regions of the Old World and Australia, with several species introduced and a few widespread as weeds or in cultivation; 7 s
    Habit
    Herbs or more rarely shrubs, sometimes sarmentose, glabrous to hairy; indumentum varied and often intermixed, the hairs multicellular (“jointed”) and short, unicellular, simple or occasionally stellate, often glandular or viscid, more rarely branched, also stipitate or sessile glands; rhizomatous structures sometimes present.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules hemicampylotropous, few–numerous in each locule on a much enlarged, subglobose placenta adnate to the dissepiment near the axis; style slender to stout; stigma capitate to nearly truncate, sometimes 2-lobed to -lamellate, included or exserted.
    Fruits
    Fruit baccaceous, mostly ± globose, sessile or sometimes on a short gynobase, juicy or fleshy, often thin-walled, sometimes viscid, 2-locular. Fruit baccaceous, mostly ± globose, sessile or sometimes on a short gynobase, juicy or fleshy, often thin-walled, sometimes viscid, 2-locular
    Seeds
    Seeds few–numerous, flattened, laterally compressed, suborbicular to reniform; testa somewhat leathery, slightly rugose or smooth, glabrous; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in a fleshy or horny endosperm, with a terete radicle as wide as the semi-terete cotyledons. Seeds few–numerous, flattened, laterally compressed, suborbicular to reniform; testa somewhat leathery, slightly rugose or smooth, glabrous; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in a fleshy or horny endosperm, with a terete radicle as wide as the semi-terete cotyledons

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tristan da Cunha, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Physalis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hinton, G.B. [8174], Mexico K000042324
    Hinton, G.B. [8200], Mexico K000042325
    Hinton, G.B. [11928], Mexico K000042326
    Hinton, G.B. [8457], Mexico K000042327
    Hinton, G.B. [619], Mexico K000042353
    Hinton, G.B. [4202], Mexico K000042354
    Hinton, G.B. [4686], Mexico K000042355
    Hinton, G.B. [6687], Mexico K000042356
    Hinton, G.B. [6347], Mexico K000042359
    Hinton, G.B. [5823], Mexico K000042360
    Hinton, G.B. [8472], Mexico K000042363
    Hinton, G.B. [8198], Mexico K000042364
    Hinton, G.B. [8034], Mexico K000042365
    Hinton, G.B. [4686], Mexico K000042367
    Hinton, G.B. [13156], Mexico K000042344
    Hinton, G.B. [6347], Mexico K000042370
    Trail, J.W.H. [601], Brazil K001071980
    Balls, E.K. [4331], Mexico K000042285
    Balls, E.K. [B4714], Mexico K000042340
    Balls, E.K. [B5413], Mexico K000042341
    Balls, E.K. [B4404], Mexico K000042342
    Balls, E.K. [B4715], Mexico K000042343
    Rico, L. [1411], Bolivia K000295481
    Rose, J.N. [7172], Mexico K000042339
    Matuda, E. [3312], Mexico K000042335
    Rovirosa, J.N. [558], Mexico K000042386
    Willis, F.R. [123], New Guinea 70592.000
    Palmer, E. [165], Mexico K000042328
    Palmer, E. [622], Mexico K000042329
    Palmer, E. [621], Mexico K000042330
    Palmer, E. [297], Mexico K000042331
    Palmer, E. [634], Mexico K000042332
    Palmer, E. [494], Mexico K000042333
    Palmer, E. [463], Mexico K000042334
    Palmer, E. [463], Mexico K000042337
    Palmer, E. [144], Mexico K000042345
    Palmer, E. [127], Mexico K000042346
    Palmer, E. [379], Mexico K000042347
    Palmer, E. [220], Mexico K000042349
    Palmer, E. [100], Mexico K000042350
    Palmer, E. [480], Mexico K000042366
    Palmer, E. [53], Mexico K000042351
    Bourgeau, M. [3228], Mexico K000042362
    Bourgeau, M. [2940], Mexico K000042371
    Langlassé, E. [309], Mexico K000042352
    Schaffner, J.G. [699], Mexico K000042348
    Nelson, E.W. [6272], Mexico K000042336
    Nelson, E.W. [4649], Mexico K000042338
    Coulter, T. [221], Mexico K000042372
    Botteri, M. [853], Mexico K000042368
    Muller, N. [1336], Mexico K000042373
    Orcutt, C.R. [3531], Mexico K000042385
    Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132459
    Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132465
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132457
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132458
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132460
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132461
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132462
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132965
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132463
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132464
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132466
    Hinton, G.B. [8606], Mexico Margaranthus K000063226

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 182 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Waterfall in Rhodora 60: 107—114, 128—142, 152—173 (1958).
    • O. E. Schulz in Urban, Symb. Antill. 6: 140 (1909)
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 246
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 202 (2001).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 182 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 182 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 202–208 (2001)
    • Rhodora 69: 82–120, 203–239, 319–329 (1967);
    • Rhodora 60: 107–114, 128–142, 152–173 (1958)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1):434 (1852);
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 85 (1754);
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 182 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0