1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Salicornia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical coasts and saline inland areas.

    [FZ]

    Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual herbs, sometimes becoming thinly woody below, glabrous, seemingly leafless, built up of numerous superposed, more or less tubular-segments which are green to reddish and succulent, and ultimately shrivel, each segment at apex forming a little cup, usually with two short teeth, embracing the base of the next higher segment.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes not disarticulating, persistent or breaking up irregularly. Fertile segments aggregated into spikes at ends of stem and lateral branches, the latter often very short.
    Flowers
    Flower minute, hermaphrodite, usually in clusters of three (always in the Flora Zambesiaca area), more or less connate, a pair of clusters to each fertile segment, the clusters on opposite sides and immersed.
    Perianth
    Perianth minutely 3–4 denticulate, opening in the middle of a truncate flattened lateral shield.
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 2 per flower.
    Seeds
    Embryo folded so that radicle and cotyledons point downwards. Seeds with thin membranous testa, minutely hairy. Endosperm absent.
    [FTEA]

    Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1954

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, or sometimes small shrubs, glabrous, seemingly leafless, apparently built up of numerous, superposed, more or less tubular segments which are green to reddish and succulent, and ultimately shrivel; each segment at apex forming a little cup, usually with two short teeth, embracing the base of the next higher segment
    Inflorescences
    Fertile segments aggregated into spikes at ends of stem and lateral branches, latter often very short; spikes not disarticulating
    Flowers
    Flowers minute, hermaphrodite, usually in threes, more or less connate, a pair of threes to each fertile segment, the threes on opposite sides and immersed
    Calyx
    Calyx normally flattened at apex into the shape of a kite (i.e. cuneate with ± rounded top), in whose middle is a 3–4-denticulate opening through which stamens and stigmas project
    Stamens
    Stamens mostly 2, sometimes 1, per flower
    Fruits
    Fruits with pericarp soft below, hardened in upper part
    Seeds
    Endosperm none or almost absent. Embryo filling the whole seed, shaped like a closed inverted U, the cotyledons large, and the radicle pointing downwards Seeds “vertical” (i.e. laterally compressed); testa thinly coriaceous, minutely hairy
    [FZ]

    Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Perennial herbs or shrubs, glabrous, seemingly leafless, apparently built up of numerous, superposed, more or less tubular segments succulent and usually green or greenish to reddish, ultimately shrivelling and falling away from the stem; each segment at apex forming a little cup, usually with two short teeth or lobes, embracing the base of the next higher segment.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes persistent or breaking up irregularly, not regularly disarticulating. Fertile segments aggregated into spikes at ends of stem and lateral branches.
    Flowers
    Flowers minute 3 (7–12) together in a cluster (cymule), a pair of clusters to each fertile segment, the clusters on opposite sides and flush with the segments.
    Perianth
    Perianth minutely and irregularly 3-lobed at apex, or more usually on a truncate flattened lateral shield.
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 1–2 per flower.
    Seeds
    Endosperm absent. Embryo folded so that radicle and cotyledonous point downwards. Seeds with soft membranous testa, minutely hairy or papillose.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, Florida, France, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Haiti, Hungary, Idaho, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Libya, Madagascar, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nebraska, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Extinct in:

    Illinois

    Introduced into:

    Michigan

    Salicornia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ash [1817], Ethiopia 35876.000
    Hubbard, C.E. 32149.000
    Turrill, W.B., United Kingdom 16959.000
    Turrill, W.B., United Kingdom 16963.000
    Graham, R.A. [4711] 16956.000
    Graham, R.A. [4709] 16957.000
    Graham, R.A. [4710] 16958.000
    Graham, R.A. [4712] 16960.000
    Collenette, I.S. [6405], Saudi Arabia 49805.000
    Collenette, I.S. [6413], Saudi Arabia 52262.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 3 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Kadereit, G., Ball, P., Beer, S., Mucina, L., Sokoloff, D. Teege, P., Yaprak, A.E. & Freitag, H. (2007). A taxonomic nightmare comes true: phylogeny and biogeography of glassworths (Salicornia L., Chenopodiaceae) Taxon 56: 1143-1170.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 86.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Sp. Pl. ed. 5: 4 (1754).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Sp. Pl., ed. 5, 4 (1754)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0