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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical coasts and saline inland areas.

[FZ]

Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs, sometimes becoming thinly woody below, glabrous, seemingly leafless, built up of numerous superposed, more or less tubular-segments which are green to reddish and succulent, and ultimately shrivel, each segment at apex forming a little cup, usually with two short teeth, embracing the base of the next higher segment.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes not disarticulating, persistent or breaking up irregularly. Fertile segments aggregated into spikes at ends of stem and lateral branches, the latter often very short.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flower minute, hermaphrodite, usually in clusters of three (always in the Flora Zambesiaca area), more or less connate, a pair of clusters to each fertile segment, the clusters on opposite sides and immersed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth minutely 3–4 denticulate, opening in the middle of a truncate flattened lateral shield.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 2 per flower.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Embryo folded so that radicle and cotyledons point downwards. Seeds with thin membranous testa, minutely hairy. Endosperm absent.

[FTEA]

Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, or sometimes small shrubs, glabrous, seemingly leafless, apparently built up of numerous, superposed, more or less tubular segments which are green to reddish and succulent, and ultimately shrivel; each segment at apex forming a little cup, usually with two short teeth, embracing the base of the next higher segment
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Fertile segments aggregated into spikes at ends of stem and lateral branches, latter often very short; spikes not disarticulating
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers minute, hermaphrodite, usually in threes, more or less connate, a pair of threes to each fertile segment, the threes on opposite sides and immersed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx normally flattened at apex into the shape of a kite (i.e. cuneate with ± rounded top), in whose middle is a 3–4-denticulate opening through which stamens and stigmas project
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens mostly 2, sometimes 1, per flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits with pericarp soft below, hardened in upper part
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Endosperm none or almost absent. Embryo filling the whole seed, shaped like a closed inverted U, the cotyledons large, and the radicle pointing downwards Seeds “vertical” (i.e. laterally compressed); testa thinly coriaceous, minutely hairy

[FTEA]

Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs or thinly woody shrubs, erect or decumbent, glabrous, seemingly leafless, apparently built up of numerous, superposed, more or less tubular segments which are green and succulent and ultimately shrivel and fall away from the stem; each segment at apex forming a little cup, usually with two short teeth, embracing the base of the next higher segment
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Fertile segments aggregated into spikes at ends of stem and lateral branches, latter often very short; spikes ultimately disarticulating or not
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers minute, hermaphrodite or unisexual, normally in threes, free or nearly so, a pair of threes to each fertile segment, the threes on opposite sides and immersed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx irregularly toothed or lobed and obtusely pyramidal at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 1, rarely 2, per flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits with membranous or horny pericarp
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Endosperm well-developed, lateral. Embryo along one side of the seed, slightly curved or shaped like a comma, the radicle pointing downwards Seeds “vertical” (i.e. laterally compressed); testa membranous or hard, glabrous, papillose or smooth

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs or subshrubs, glabrous throughout
Morphology Stem
Stems woody when old; articulated, apparently leafless – made up of cylindrical fleshy segments formed from almost completely fused leaf pairs which cover each internode with the free tips forming a short cupule with opposite points at the tip
Morphology General
Leaf- and bark-tissue with sclerids
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, spike-like, with 3-flowered cymules sessile in axils of paired bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers of equal height, central flower bisexual, lateral flowers sometimes male, embedded in inflorescence axis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth segments completely fused, with truncate top, obscurely 3–4-lobed Perianth spongy in fruit; pericarp hyaline or woody
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen 1(–2), adaxial
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed ovate to orbicular; testa crustaceous, granular or smooth; embryo straight or U-shaped, endosperm present.
Distribution
Two species, the other in Mediterranean North America.
Note
Most of the seven species included in this genus by Scott were subsequently removed to Halosarcia by Wilson.

[FZ]

Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs or shrubs, glabrous, seemingly leafless, apparently built up of numerous, superposed, more or less tubular segments succulent and usually green or greenish to reddish, ultimately shrivelling and falling away from the stem; each segment at apex forming a little cup, usually with two short teeth or lobes, embracing the base of the next higher segment.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes persistent or breaking up irregularly, not regularly disarticulating. Fertile segments aggregated into spikes at ends of stem and lateral branches.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers minute 3 (7–12) together in a cluster (cymule), a pair of clusters to each fertile segment, the clusters on opposite sides and flush with the segments.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth minutely and irregularly 3-lobed at apex, or more usually on a truncate flattened lateral shield.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 1–2 per flower.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Endosperm absent. Embryo folded so that radicle and cotyledonous point downwards. Seeds with soft membranous testa, minutely hairy or papillose.

Doubtfully present in:

Western Sahara

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, Florida, France, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Haiti, Hungary, Idaho, India, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Libya, Madagascar, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon

Extinct in:

Illinois

Introduced into:

Michigan

Salicornia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Graham, R.A. [4711] 16956.000
Graham, R.A. [4709] 16957.000
Graham, R.A. [4710] 16958.000
Turrill, W.B., United Kingdom 16959.000
Graham, R.A. [4712] 16960.000
Turrill, W.B., United Kingdom 16963.000
Hubbard, C.E. 32149.000
Ash [1817], Ethiopia 35876.000
Collenette, I.S. [6405], Saudi Arabia 49805.000
Collenette, I.S. [6413], Saudi Arabia 52262.000
Richmond, M. [F], Tanzania Arthrocnemum 63159.000
Richmond, M. [B], Tanzania Arthrocnemum 63160.000
Richmond, M. [A], Tanzania Arthrocnemum 63161.000
Richmond, M. [C], Tanzania Arthrocnemum 63162.000
Richmond, M. [G], Tanzania Arthrocnemum 63163.000
Richmond, M. [H], Tanzania Arthrocnemum 63164.000

First published in Sp. Pl.: 3 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Kadereit, G., Ball, P., Beer, S., Mucina, L., Sokoloff, D. Teege, P., Yaprak, A.E. & Freitag, H. (2007). A taxonomic nightmare comes true: phylogeny and biogeography of glassworths (Salicornia L., Chenopodiaceae) Taxon 56: 1143-1170.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 86.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Sp. Pl. ed. 5: 4 (1754).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Sp. Pl., ed. 5, 4 (1754)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0