Skip to main content
  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Olyra L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America, Tropical Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Erect or clambering, often woody, perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades typically ovate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence paniculate, monoecious, ♂ spikelets just below ♀ or lower part of panicle exclusively ♂
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1-flowered; lodicules 2–3, truncate Female spikelets large, ovoid; lower glume caudate; lemma and palea crustaceous. Male spikelets small, fusiform, readily deciduous, lacking glumes; stamens 3
    Male
    Male spikelets small, fusiform, readily deciduous, lacking glumes; stamens 3
    Female
    Female spikelets large, ovoid; lower glume caudate; lemma and palea crustaceous.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (12), or short (12), or elongated (1). Culms erect (16/23), or geniculately ascending (9/23), or scandent (5/23); robust (1/1); 25-152.1-500 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (2/2), or rooting from lower nodes (1/2). Culm-nodes constricted (2/13), or swollen (11/13). Lateral branches lacking (1/5), or sparse (4/5). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (15), or erect (9). Ligule an eciliate membrane (8), or a ciliolate membrane (12), or a ciliate membrane (5). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate (20), or oblong (6), or ovate (14); stiff (1), or firm (23). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (20), or with distinct cross veins (4).
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Synflorescence on the same culm as leaves (22), or on a separate leafless culm (2). Inflorescence a panicle; terminal (7), or terminal and axillary (19); not deciduous as a whole (23), or deciduous as a whole (1). Panicle open (18), or contracted (5), or spiciform (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (8), or whorled at lower nodes (13), or whorled at most nodes (4). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (23), or deciduous branches (1). Sexes segregated; on unisexual branches (10), or bisexual branches (20); with male conjugate (1), or below (23). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled (2), or pedicelled (22); 1 in a cluster (1/12), or 2 in a cluster (11/12), or 3 in a cluster (1/12), or 4 in a cluster (2/12). Pedicels linear (3), or columnar (2), or clavate (14), or cuneate (5); tip widened (5/5).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (18), or elliptic (1), or ovate (5); dorsally compressed; 5-19.8-50 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (18), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (6). Floret callus brief (23), or evident (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (22), or deciduous (2); exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (4), or elliptic (11), or ovate (9); 1-1.235-2.5 length of upper glume; membranous (3), or herbaceous (21); without keels; 5-8-15 -veined. Lower glume surface smooth (13), or asperulous (6), or scabrous (8); glabrous (20), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (3), or pilose (3), or hispid (2). Lower glume apex acuminate (10), or attenuate (6), or setaceously attenuate (1), or caudate (8); muticous (9), or awned (17). Upper glume lanceolate (4), or elliptic (10), or ovate (10); 1.1-1.804-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (3), or herbaceous (21); without keels; 5 -veined (9), or 6 -veined (7), or 7 -veined (19), or 8 -veined (11), or 9 -veined (13), or 10 -veined (4), or 11 -veined (5), or 12-13 -veined (1). Upper glume primary vein eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Upper glume lateral veins without cross-veins (1/22), or with cross-veins (22/22). Upper glume surface smooth (13), or asperulous (7), or scabrous (7); glabrous (20), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or hispid (2). Upper glume apex acute (1), or acuminate (15), or attenuate (5), or setaceously attenuate (1), or caudate (4); muticous (19), or awned (8); 1 -awned (7/7).
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate (8), or elliptic (11), or oblong (1), or ovate (4), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; not gibbous (23), or gibbous (1); indurate; without keel; 3 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (11/16), or 6 -veined (2/16), or 7 -veined (5/16), or 8 -veined (1/16), or 11 -veined (1/16). Lemma lateral veins obscure (3/3). Lemma surface smooth (15), or scabrous (1), or pitted (8); without grooves (23), or with 2 longitudinal grooves (1); glabrous (15), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or pilose (4). Lemma margins involute; eciliate (23), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (3), or acute (16), or acuminate (5); without ornament (23), or pubescent (1). Palea not rolled (21), or involute (3); 1 length of lemma; indurate; 2 -veined (5/7), or 4 -veined (2/7); without keels. Palea surface glabrous (23), or pubescent (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3 (23/23); membranous (3/3). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2 (23/23).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15); fusiform (6/15), or ellipsoid (5/15), or oblong (1/15), or ovoid (2/15), or obovoid (1/15); flattened (1/1). Embryo 0.11-0.1733-0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (12/12); 0.8-0.9833-1 length of caryopsis.
    Spikelets
    Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate (22/23), or elliptic (1/23). Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous (11/23), or awned (12/23). Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (18), or elliptic (1), or ovate (5); dorsally compressed; 5-19.8-50 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (18), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (6). Floret callus brief (23), or evident (1).
    Male
    Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate (22/23), or elliptic (1/23). Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous (11/23), or awned (12/23).
    Distribution
    Africa (1), or North America (2), or South America.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Female spikelets large, conspicuous, arranged in the upper part of the inflorescence above the male ones, ventricose. Spikelets monoecious, 1-flowered, deciduous, heteromorphous, with both sexes usually within the same (very rarely in different) inflorescences of each individual plant; rhachilla disarticulating below the lemma. Male spikelets more numerous and much smaller than the female, and arranged below them, deciduous.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, subequal, (3)5-9-nerved, persistent, chartaceous or membranous, transversely veined, ovate to lanceolate, cymbiform, with the apex usually caudate. Glumes reduced to a very small, almost invisible rim below the articulation of the rhachilla.
    Lemma
    Lemma faintly 5-nerved, awnless, subcoriaceous to indurate (bony), elliptic to lanceolate, dorsally convex. Lemma 3-nerved, membranous, broadly lanceolate, with inflexed margins, apex acuminate or shortly awned.
    Palea
    Palea 2-nerved, similar in shape and consistency to the lemma, tightly embraced by the margins of the lemma. Palea slightly shorter than the lemma, 2-nerved, lanceolate, thinly membranous, the margins embraced by the lemma.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 3, cuneate with the apex truncate. Lodicules usually 3, cuneate, very small.
    Stamens
    Stamens entirely absent. Stamens 3.
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous; styles fused up to the middle; stigmas plumose, apically exserted. Ovary completely absent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis tightly enclosed by the lemma and palea, convex on both sides; hilum almost as long as the caryopsis, linear.
    Habit
    Perennial bamboo-like grasses.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae borne on a short pseudo-petiole, relatively large, somewhat asymmetric, convolute in bud, tessellate.
    Ligules
    Ligules thinly membranous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal panicle (rarely with some additional axillary ones).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Olyra L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Zapfack, L. [893], Cameroon K000460082
    Fraga, C.N. [2215], Brazil K001077608

    Bibliography

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1261 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Syst. Nat. ed. 10: 1261 (1759).

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 1261 (1759).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Syst. Nat., ed. 10: 1261 (1759)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0