1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Saccharum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Central & E. U.S.A. and Central & E. Asia to Tropical & Subtropical.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennials, often tall; culms solid
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule scarious or a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence large, plumose, often silvery, with many racemes crowded upon the primary panicle-branches; racemes usually flexuous, the rhachis fragile and bearing paired similar spikelets, one sessile, the other pedicelled; internodes linear, slender, usually more than 1/2 the length of the sessile spikelet
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, enveloped in long silky hairs from the callus; callus very short, truncate; glumes equal, membranous or sometimes sub-coriaceous below, the lower flat or rounded on the back; lower floret reduced to a lemma, this lanceolate, shorter than the spikelet, hyaline; upper floret hermaphrodite; lemma lanceolate, hyaline, awnless or with a straight awn, entire or rarely bilobed, sometimes reduced to a subulate vestige; stamens 2–3
    Fruits
    Caryopsis subglobose to narrowly oblong.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (25), or short (7), or elongated (4). Culms erect (34/35), or geniculately ascending (1/35), or rambling (1/35); robust (25/25); 0-221.6-1000 cm long; firm (34), or woody (2). Culm-internodes terete (2/2). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/2), or swollen (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (4/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (35), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (35), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (33), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (35), or coriaceous (1); stiff (5), or firm (31). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/10), or widened (5/10). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; exserted (35), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Panicle open (33/34), or contracted (1/34). Primary panicle branches not whorled (32), or whorled at lower nodes (1), or whorled at most nodes (3). Racemes bearing few fertile spikelets (3), or many spikelets (33); 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 4-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 7-8 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 9 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 10-17 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 18-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/4). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular (1), or subterete (35). Rhachis internodes filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (3), or sessile and pedicelled (34); 1 in the cluster (3), or 2 in the cluster (34); subequal (33/33), or the upper smaller (1/33). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (3/3); 0 in the cluster (1/3), or 1 in the cluster (3/3). Pedicels filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1); tip widened (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (33), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (3). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (29), or elliptic (4), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2-5.043-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (34), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (35), or square (1); glabrous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or bearded (32); base truncate (35), or obtuse (1); inserted (1/1).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (33), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (29), or elliptic (4), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2-5.043-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (34), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (35), or square (1); glabrous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or bearded (32); base truncate (35), or obtuse (1); inserted (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets (6/11), or exceeding apex of florets (5/11); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (7), or ovate (1); membranous (12), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (8); without keels (4), or 2-keeled (32); 1 -veined (2/19), or 2 -veined (7/19), or 3 -veined (5/19), or 4 -veined (6/19), or 5 -veined (7/19), or 6 -veined (1/19), or 7 -veined (2/19), or 9-11 -veined (1/19). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or obscure (1), or distinct (35); without ribs (35), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (8), or flat (28); smooth (33), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (18), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or pilose (11), or hirsute (4), or villous (6). Lower glume apex entire (34), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); emarginate (4/32), or truncate (3/32), or obtuse (4/32), or acute (9/32), or acuminate (16/32). Upper glume lanceolate (33), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); membranous (13), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (9); without keels (20), or 1-keeled (16); 1 -veined (14/28), or 2 -veined (2/28), or 3 -veined (11/28), or 5 -veined (2/28), or 7 -veined (3/28). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (35), or ciliate (2). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (23/24), or ribbed (1/24). Upper glume surface smooth (34), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (29), or pubescent (1), or pilose (9), or hirsute (3), or villous (2). Upper glume apex truncate (2/35), or obtuse (1/35), or acute (29/35), or acuminate (2/35), or setaceously attenuate (1/35), or caudate (1/35); muticous (34), or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea (35). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (2), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (4), or ovate (1); hyaline (35), or membranous (1); 0 -veined (9/18), or 1 -veined (4/18), or 2 -veined (3/18), or 3 -veined (5/18); truncate (1/34), or obtuse (2/34), or acute (31/34); muticous (35), or mucronate (2). Fertile lemma linear (18/35), or lanceolate (15/35), or elliptic (1/35), or oblong (6/35), or ovate (1/35); hyaline (35/35); 0 -veined (5/18), or 1 -veined (6/18), or 3 -veined (7/18). Lemma surface glabrous (34/35), or pubescent (1/35). Lemma margins eciliate (25/35), or ciliolate (6/35), or ciliate (5/35). Lemma apex entire (24/35), or dentate (6/35), or lobed (6/35); 2 -fid (11/11); incised 0.2-0.3517-0.5 of lemma length; acute (6/6); muticous (10/35), or mucronate (1/35), or awned (27/35); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn apical (17/28), or from a sinus (11/28); straight (17/28), or curved (4/28), or flexuous (3/28), or geniculate (6/28). Palea present (16), or absent or minute (20); 0.15-0.875-3 length of lemma; hyaline (8/16), or membranous (8/16). Palea keels eciliate (15/16), or ciliolate (1/16). Palea surface glabrous (14/16), or pilose (2/16).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (26/26); glabrous (12/26), or ciliate (14/26). Anthers 2 (2/33), or 3 (31/33).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); oblong (2/2); isodiametric (1/1). Embryo 0.15 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (4), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (21), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (4), or North America (8), or South America (6).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Inflorescence a panicle, often large and plumose, bearing numerous racemes on its branches; racemes loose, fragile, with slender internodes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets alike, paired, one sessile, one pedicelled, lanceolate, enveloped in long silky hairs from the callus.
    Glume
    Inferior glume membranous or sometimes subcoriaceous below, flat or rounded on the back.
    Florets
    Inferior floret represented by a short hyaline lemma.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma entire or bidentate, awned or awnless, sometimes almost suppressed; stamens 2–3.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Georgia, Ghana, Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, Maryland, Mexico Southeast, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New York, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Xinjiang, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra, Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil North, Burundi, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Kriti, Leeward Is., Maldives, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Nauru, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Spain, Sulawesi, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Saccharum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3686], Brazil K001106146
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [5089], Brazil K001106147
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8854], Nepal K001128374
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8854], Myanmar K001128376
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8854], Myanmar K001128377
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001106145
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128375
    Singh, B. [Cat. no. 8856], Nepal K001128386
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8852] K001128357
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8852] K001128358
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853] K001128359
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853] K001128360
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853], India K001128361
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853], India K001128362
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128364
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128365
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], Bangladesh K001128366
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128367
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128368
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128369
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128370
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128371
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854], India K001128372
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8854] K001128378
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855] K001128379
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855], Bangladesh K001128380
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855], India K001128381
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8856], India K001128385
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8853], India K001128363
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8855], India K001128382
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8856], India K001128383
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8856], India K001128384
    Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K001106144
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8848], Nepal Erianthus K001128345
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8849], Nepal Erianthus K001128346
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8846] Erianthus K001128343
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8847] Erianthus K001128344

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 94 (1917).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 28 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 54 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 54 (1753).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 28 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0