1. Family: Cyperaceae Juss.
    1. Carex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

    Habit
    Perennial herbs, tufted or often with creeping rhizomes
    Culms
    Culm triangular or rarely rounded, usually scapose
    Leaves
    Leaves ligulate, with prominent leaf-sheath
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences either solitary dense bisexual spikes or much branched often dense panicles with many short sessile or subsessile bisexual spikes of few spikelets, or much less branched, or a few sessile or pedunculate long spikes in which the sexual composition and position of the male and female spikelets varies
    Spikelets
    Spikelets always unisexual, the female 1-flowered consisting of an ovary contained in a bottleshaped utricle and subtended by a glume; the male consisting of 1–3 stamens arising from a low receptacle subtended abaxially by a glume and actually represents 3 1-staminate flowers.
    Style
    Style branches 2–3.
    Anthers
    Anthers linear-oblong
    Fruits
    Nutlet trigonous or flattened.
    Note
    The genus was monographed by Kükenthal [E.P. 4, 20 Cyperaceae-Caricoideae: 1–824 (1909)] who divided it into 4 subgenera: Primocarex Kük., Vignea (P. Beauv.) Nees, Indocarex Baill. and Carex and although these are still often used (e.g. by Haines & Lye) doubt on the naturalness of the first was first expressed in 1936 and now usually only Carex and Vignea are recognised. If the plant has several to many elongate sometimes sessile but usually pedunculate spikes as in Fig 66, p. 440. it is easiest to go direct to couplet 15 in the key.
    [FTEA]

    Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

    Habit
    Robust or slender rhizomatose or tufted perennials or slender grass-like plants (and easily confused with them)
    Culms
    Culms scapose
    Leaves
    Leaves ligulate
    Bracts
    Involucral bracts leaf-like or short Upper bracts of the main axis also subtending male florets to form a terminal male spikelet; the rachilla may not be developed into a male spikelet but reduced to a flattened scabrid remnant which protudes from the utricle mouth or so reduced that it does not protrude but is shorter than the ovary or so reduced as to be entirely lacking
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a slender to large panicle with unisexual flowers or reduced to a single spike; main axis with a succession of bracts, each of the lowest subtending utricles enclosing a female floret; rachilla with an apical partial spikelet of several glumes each subtending a male floret.
    Flowers
    Female flowers with 3-fid style Male flowers with 3 stamens
    Fruits
    Nutlet trigonous, often beaked
    Note
    About 12 species, mostly in southern Africa, a few extending to Ethiopia and 2 in Madagascar.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marion-Prince Edward, Marquesas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Carex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 1887 s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Assam K001132709
    Johns, R.J. [9120], New Guinea 70309.000
    Johns, R.J. [9120], New Guinea 64344.000
    Rico, L. [1756], Armenia K000297269
    Stelfox, A.W. [s.n.], Ireland K000300542
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3397], Nepal K000587393
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3398], Nepal K000587394
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3400], Nepal K000587395
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3384], Nepal K000587397 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3381], Nepal K000767914
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3382], Nepal K000767915
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3383], Malaysia K000767916
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3385], Nepal K000767917
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3386], Nepal K000767918
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3387], Nepal K000767920
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3388], Nepal K000767921
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3389], Nepal K000767922
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3391], India K000767925
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3393], Nepal K000767927
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3395], Nepal K000767930
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3396], Nepal K000767932
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3399], Myanmar K000767933
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3384], Nepal K001119305
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3388], Nepal K001119307
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3393], Nepal K001119309
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3395], Nepal K001119310
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3400], Nepal K001119311
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3533], Myanmar K001119667
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 3389], India K000767923
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 3394], India K000767928
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 3394], India K000767929
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 3400], India K001119312
    Fay, M.F. [MFF272], United Kingdom K000696760
    Fay, M.F. [MFF274], United Kingdom K000696761
    Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132704
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3392] K000767926
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3395] K000767931
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Assam K001132708
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Meghalaya K001132707
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132706
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Meghalaya K001132705
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3384], India K000587392
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3390], India K000767924
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3400] K000767934
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3400] K000767935
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3400] K001119306
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3390], India K001119308

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 972 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Koopman, J., Smith, C. & Blackstock, N. (2014). Carex tomentosa versus C. filiformis (Cyperaceae): the long-standing debate comes to its happy end Nordic Journal of Botany 32.
    • Koopman, J. (2011). Carex Europaea. The Genus Carex L. (Cyperaceae) in Europe 1: 1-726. Margraf publishers,Weikersheim, Germany.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Kükenthal in Engl., Pflanzenr. Cyperaceae-Caricoideae: 67–767 (1908).
    • F.T.A. 8: 514 (1902)
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 420 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 972 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Haines & Lye, Sedges and Rushes E. Afr.: 368–384 (1983)
    • Journ. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. 24 (106): 6–18 (1963)
    • Gen Pl. ed. 5: 420 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 972 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0