1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Vicia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Widely known as the Vicieae, the correct name for this tribe is Fabeae (see Greuter et al., 2000, Articles 19.4 and 18.5), since it must be based on the name of the type genus of the family, Faba Mill. (= Vicia L.). This does not reflect on the names Leguminosae and Papilionoideae (see introduction) whose use as alternative names for Fabaceae and Faboideae respectively is sanctioned in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al., 2000; Article 18.5).

    Fabeae is a well-defined tribe, forming part of the ‘temperate epulvinate series’ (Polhill, 1981a). It contains five genera, of which two (Lathyrus and Vicia) are large. The tribe as a whole is centred in the Irano-Turanian Region of the E Mediterranean. Lathyrus and Vicia, each with about 160 species, have very similar distributions centred on the Mediterranean but extending throughout Europe, N Asia and N and tropical E Africa, with secondary centres in N America and S America. One large group of species, some in Vicia and some in Lathyrus, are superficially extremely similar and can only be distinguished by technical characters of the style. This group was in the past recognised as the genus Orobus L. (Kupicha, 1981a). Lens has 4–6 species and Pisum 2 or 3. Both include important crop plants and, perhaps because of this, their taxonomy is controversial. Both are E Mediterranean genera with outlying species. The monospecific genus Vavilovia, sometimes included in Pisum, is confined to montane habitats in W Asia.

    Kupicha (1981a) was unable to suggest a closest relative of the tribe; she had previously (Kupicha, 1977) excluded Abrus (Abreae) and Cicer (Cicereae) from it. The morphological analysis of Chappill (1995) placed Fabeae (as Vicieae) in a group with Astragalinae, Galeginae, Loteae, Coronilleae, Cicereae and Trifolieae. Doyle (1995) included these subtribes and tribes (except Loteae and Coronilleae) in a clade characterised by the loss of the inverted repeat (the IRLC), with Carmichaelieae (here included in Galegeae sens. lat.), Cicereae, Galegeae, Hedysareae, some Millettieae, and Trifolieae. More recent work (Wojciechowski et al., 2000) places Fabeae at the heart of a Vicioid clade that includes Trifolieae (q.v.) and Cicereae as well as Galega — a fragment of a paraphyletic Galegeae. Fabeae (as Vicieae) appears embedded within Trifolieae as sister to Trifolium.

    In the analyses of Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) and Wojciechowski et al. (2004), Fabeae (as Vicieae) forms a clearly monophyletic group in which Pisum is sister to Lathyrus, and these two emerge as a well supported clade within a paraphyletic Vicia. A subclade of Vicia species is sister to Lens. Within Lathyrus, the cpDNA restriction site phylogeny of Asmussen & Liston (1998) agrees in general with dividing the genus into sections previously recognised using classical taxonomic methodology (e.g., Kupicha, 1983).

    The publications of the Vicieae Database Project (e.g., Allkin et al., 1983 a & b) provide basic information for the whole tribe. In this treatment the Fabeae is considered to comprise 5 genera and c. 329 species (Fig. 57).

    Habit
    Herbs (mostly climbing)
    Ecology
    Temperate, mediterranean and tropical montane grassland, shrubland and woodland
    Distribution
    Mostly N temperate: Europe and Asia (c. 110 spp., principally from the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions, some spp. to China, Korea and Japan); N to E Africa (c. 15 spp.); additional centres in N America (c. 17 spp., including 1 sp. in Hawaii) and temperate S America (c. 18 spp.)
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, mostly climbing by means of tendrils, less often straggling or suberect
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in a branched or simple tendril or bristle, or, rarely, some or all of the leaves imparipinnate; leaflets in mostly numerous, less often in 1–3, pairs, entire or toothed; stipules semisagittate, often fimbriate or toothed; stipels absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, racemose, or flowers sometimes solitary or few in the leaf-axils; bracts generally small and deciduous; bracteoles absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; tube often oblique and asymmetrical; lobes subequal or the upper pair shorter and partly joined
    Corolla
    Corolla small to medium-sized, often blue, purple or yellow; standard obovate or oblong, emarginate, tapering into a broad claw; wings obliquely obovate or oblong, usually but not always adherent to the keel
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free or ± united with the tube; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary subsessile or stipitate, 2–many-ovuled; style terete or compressed, seldom flattened at the apex, pubescent or pilose all round or on lower side only or with an apical tuft of hairs, rarely glabrous; stigma terminal
    Fruits
    Pods oblong to linear, compressed
    Seeds
    Seeds globose or rarely compressed; funicle dilated into a thin aril.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, mostly climbing by means of tendrils, less often straggling or erect.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in a tendril or bristle, rarely imparipinnate; leaflets often numerous, less often in 1–3 pairs, entire or toothed, folded flat lengthwise in bud; stipules usually small, semi-sagittate, often fimbriate or toothed, herbaceous; stipels absent.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary racemes or fascicles or solitary; bracts usually small, deciduous; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; tube often asymmetrical; lobes subequal or the upper two shorter and partly joined.
    Corolla
    Corolla small to medium-sized, blue, mauve, purple, yellow or white; standard obovate or oblong, very often adhering to the keel; keel obtuse.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free or ± united with the others; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate or subsessile, 2–many-ovuled; style distally pubescent or pilose all round or on the lower side only, rarely glabrous; stigma terminal.
    Fruits
    Pod oblong to linear, compressed, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds globular or compressed.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Many species are widely introduced and naturalised (some are weeds); vetches are used extensively as cover crops, for forage, hay, silage, erosion control and green manure; V. faba L. (broad bean, fava bean) is a major pulse crop, also eaten green, with many cultivars in the trade; V. narbonensis L. is a minor pulse crop; several other species (e.g., V. sativa L., V. ervilia (L.) Willd. and V. villosa Roth) are cultivated as fodder; V. sativa (common vetch) is also used for medicine; in various species occasional toxicity (causing favism) is found from amino glucosides in seeds

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf States, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Malawi, Manchuria, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Angola, Bermuda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chad, Chatham Is., Connecticut, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Falkland Is., Free State, Haiti, Indiana, Jamaica, Jawa, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Myanmar, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Réunion, South Australia, St.Helena, Svalbard, Tasmania, Vermont, Victoria, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

    Vicia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Rico, L. [1193], Bolivia K000295110
    Rico, L. [1308], Bolivia K000295151
    Rico, L. [1328], Bolivia K000295128
    Rico, L. [1802], Armenia K000661344

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 734 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 327 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 734 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 327 (1754)
    • Sp. PI.: 734 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0