1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Centaurea L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    Perennial or annual herbs (shrubs), hirsute-scabridulous or tomentose-araneose, often with sessile glands, rarely glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate (or radical), entire, dentate or sometimes pinnatilobed (spiny), bases sometimes decurrent on the stem.
    Capitulum
    Capitula solitary (or paniculate), heterogamous, radiant.
    Involucre
    Involucre ovoid-subglobose, hemispheric or nearly cylindric, araneose or glabrous; phyllaries many-seriate, imbricate, coriaceous, with a ± patent pectinate or spinose appendage.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle densely setose, the setae smooth and twisted.
    Florets
    Florets tubular, the outer series neuter sometimes with staminodes, the inner florets hermaphrodite; corollas whitish, purple, pink, blue or yellow, slender tubular below, dilated and deeply 5(8)-lobed above; anther bases sagittate, adjacent lobes connate into a short or long tail; style 2-branched, abruptly swollen below the branches with a ring of hairs at or below the swelling; the branches erect, long somewhat flat and ± connate, diverging only near the tips.
    Fruits
    Achenes oblong or obovoid, ± laterally compressed, apex rounded to truncate, glabrous when ripe, attachment-scar lateral-oblique, ± concave.
    Seeds
    Pappus many-seriate of unequal barbellate (or plumose) scale-like setae, persistent (caducous or absent).
    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Herbs or subshrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, usually dissected
    Capitulum
    Capitula solitary or corymbose, heterogamous and disciform or radiant, or homogamous; phyllaries multiseriate, with fimbriate appendages; receptacle densely setose
    Florets
    Florets with linear, sagittate anthers, with distal lanceolate appendage; style shortly bifid, abruptly swollen below the branches and with a ring of hairs at or below the swelling
    Fruits
    Achenes somewhat compressed; pappus generally double.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Argentina Northeast, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Nevada, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, Buryatiya, California, Cape Provinces, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Florida, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Peru, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon

    Centaurea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Rico, L. [1947], Morocco K000564871
    Day, C.D. [899], Turkey K000341625

    First published in Sp. Pl. 2: 909 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Nagaresh, K. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2018). A revision of Centaurea sect. Cynaroides (Asteraceae, Cardueae-Centaureinae) Phytotaxa 363: 1-131.
    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Philipson in J. Bot. 77: 227 (1939).
    • —F.T.A. 3: 436
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • C. Jeffrey in Kew Bull.22: 134 (1968).
    • Philipson in Journ. Bot. 77: 227–233 (1939).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 389 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 909 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • K. Bremer, Asteraceae Clad. & Class.: 151 (1994)
    • Philipson in J.B. 77: 228 (1939)
    • Sp. Pl.: 909 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0