1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Verbena L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or sometimes in whorls of 3, simple and dentate or deeply divided, rarely entire
    Flowers
    Flowers in simple spikes or panicles of spikes, often dense and compact or more elongate and lax, bracteate, terminal
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, distinctly and ± unequally (4–)5-toothed, 5-ribbed
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube straight or ± curved, ± pubescent within; limb 5-lobed, ± spreading, feebly to distincdy 2-lipped
    Stamens
    Stamens (2–)4(–5), included, usually inserted near the middle of the tube but sometimes higher, didynamous
    Pistil
    Ovary entire or 4-lobed, 4-locular with a single ovule in each locule; style slender but ± short; stigma unequally 2-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruit splitting into 4 nutlets at maturity, enveloped in the persistent calyx Nutlets with inner face often scabridulous or granulate.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, small shrubs, woody climbers or trees Annual or perennial herbs, small shrubs, woody climbers or trees.
    Stem
    Stems 4-angled, erect ascending or procumbent, glabrous or hairy Stems 4-angled, erect ascending or procumbent, glabrous or hairy.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite and usually decussate, rarely 3-whorled or alternate, dentate, or often incised or variously lobed or partite, rarely entire Leaves opposite and usually decussate, rarely 3-whorled or alternate, dentate, or often incised or variously lobed or partite, rarely entire.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences spicate with the spikes terminal, sometimes axillary, simple or corymbosely or paniculately arranged; spikes densely crowded, or elongate with distant flowers Inflorescences spicate with the spikes terminal, sometimes axillary, simple or corymbosely or paniculately arranged; spikes densely crowded, or elongate with distant flowers.
    Flowers
    Flowers small or medium-sized, sessile, each solitary in the axil of a narrow bract Flowers small or medium-sized, sessile, each solitary in the axil of a narrow bract.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-carpellate, entire or slightly lobed at the apex, 4-locular at anthesis, each locule l-ovulate; ovules anatropous, erect, attached laterally at or near the base; style usually equalling the stamens, divided at the apex into a short, stigmatic anterior lobe and an acute horny sterile posterior tooth
    Note
    The species found the Flora Zambesiaca area, with the exception of Verbena officinalis subsp. africana , are all introduced and most have become naturalized.  Taxa which occur the Flora Zambesiaca area only as cultivated garden ornamentals include: Verbena wrightii A. Gray, Verbena × hybrida Groenl. & Rümpler and Verbena × teasii Moldenke. The concept of Verbena employed here includes Glandularia J.F. Gmel. which has often been recognized as a separate genus, e.g. by Sanders, R.W., Harvard Papers Botany 5 , 2: 303–358 (2001).   The treatment of V. bonariensis L., V. brasiliensis Vell. and V. litoralis Kunth by  Dr. P. Yeo,  Kew Bull. 45 : 101–120 (1990), is followed here.
    Distribution
    A genus of c. 350 taxa (including species and infraspecific taxa), mostly native to temperate and tropical America, with 2 species Europe, Asia and N Africa.  Several species, and their hybrids, are introduced in the Old World as garden ornamentals.
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 5-angled and ribbed on the angles, unequally 5-toothed, ± dilated at the base in the fruiting stage and then ventricose, eventually splitting. Calyx tubular, 5-angled and ribbed on the angles, unequally 5-toothed, ± dilated at the base the fruiting stage and then ventricose, eventually splitting
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube straight or curved, cylindric or widening slightly towards the apex, usually villous within particularly at the mouth and about the insertion of the filaments; limb spreading, oblique, weakly 2-lipped, with unequal obtuse lobes, rounded or emarginate at the apex. Corolla funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube straight or curved, cylindric or widening slightly towards the apex, usually villous within particularly at the mouth and about the insertion of the filaments; limb spreading, oblique, weakly 2-lipped, with unequal obtuse lobes, rounded or emarginate at the apex
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, included, didynamous; filaments inserted about or above the middle of the corolla tube; anthers ovate, with parallel or diverging thecae without appendages, or the connectives of upper 2 stamens each provided with a clavate or glanduliform appendage. Stamens 4, included, didynamous; filaments inserted about or above the middle of the corolla tube; anthers ovate, with parallel or diverging thecae without appendages, or the connectives of upper 2 stamens each provided with a clavate or glanduliform appendage
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-carpellate, entire or slightly lobed at the apex, 4-locular at anthesis, each locule l-ovulate; ovules anatropous, erect, attached laterally at or near the base; style usually equalling the stamens, divided at the apex into a short, stigmatic anterior lobe and an acute horny sterile posterior tooth.
    Fruits
    Fruit a schizocarp, enclosed within the persistent calyx, separating when ripe into four 1-seeded mericarps; mericarps linear or oblong, with dry pericarp, longitudinally ribbed with a raised reticulation toward the apex. Fruit a schizocarp, enclosed within the persistent calyx, separating when ripe into four 1-seeded mericarps; mericarps linear or oblong, with dry pericarp, longitudinally ribbed with a raised reticulation toward the apex
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong; endosperm lacking or scanty. Seeds oblong; endosperm lacking or scanty.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Maine, Mali, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Angola, Azores, Borneo, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cook Is., Easter Is., Fiji, Free State, Galápagos, Hawaii, Juan Fernández Is., Leeward Is., Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mozambique, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Primorye, Réunion, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Swaziland, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Verbena L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 20 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • O'Leary, N., Múlgura, M.E. & Morrone, O. (2010). Revisión taxonómica de las especies del género Verbena (Verbenaceae). II: serie Verbena Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 97: 365-424.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 5: 286.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Atkins in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 463 (2004).
    • Atkins Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. chief) VII : 463 (2004).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 6–10 (1992).
    • Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 6–10 (1992).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 12 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 12 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 18 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 18 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 12 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 18 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0