1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Verbena L.
      1. Verbena officinalis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Old World to Australia.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Erect perennial, rarely annual, laxly branched herb 0.3–1.6 m. tall; stems ± woody at base, 4-angled, sulcate, sparsely scabridulous or ± glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves more or less ovate in outline, 2–7(–11) cm. long, 0.8–8.5 cm. wide, pinnatisect or pinnatifid with broad acute bluntly serrate lobes, adpressed hispidulous above, scabridulous beneath, acute or ± obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base into an indistinct winged petiole 1–2 cm. long; upper stem-leaves often lanceolate or oblanceolate in oudine, less lobed and more bluntly serrate.
    Flowers
    Flowers minute in numerous elongate spikes 5–30 cm. long, dense above, lax below; rhachis and narrowly ovate-acuminate bracts glandular-pubescent.
    Calyx
    Calyx ± 2–2.5 mm. long, glandular-pubescent outside; teeth triangular, ± 0.4 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale lilac-purple, pink or mauve, often with yellow throat, glabrous; tube ± 3 mm. long; limb subequally 5-lobed; lobes ± oblong, 0.75–2 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at 2 levels near or above the middle of the tube.
    Style
    Style 0.5–1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Nutlets brown, oblong, 1.5–2 mm. long, 0.6–0.8 mm. wide, longitudinally rugulose-reticulate outside, whitish scabridulous-papillose inside.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New South Wales, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Arizona, Azores, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chile Central, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Madeira, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niger, Niue, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode I., South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin

    Verbena officinalis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2011 Day, C.D. [646], Turkey K000341577
    May 7, 1980 Krauss [151], South Africa K000379388
    Hartweg [175], Mexico K000470569 holotype
    Gillies [s.n.], Argentina K000193649
    Gillies, J. [s.n.], Mendoza K000193650
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], USA K000759916 syntype
    Lindley [s.n.], Oaxaca K000470570
    Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134631
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1825], Myanmar K001114311
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1825], India K001114312
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1825], Nepal K001114313
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1825], India K001114314
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000470503
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000470502 isotype
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 237], United Kingdom K000914326
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1825] K001114315
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1825], India K001114316

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 20 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Nesom, G.L. (2010). A new species of Verbena (Verbenaceae) from Northeastern Mexico and an overview of the Verbena officinalis group Phytoneuron 2010-13: 1-13.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Van Heurck, H. & De Beucker, J.I. (1861). Antwerpsche Analytische Flora 1: 1-192. Drukkerij der weduwe Jos. Van Ishoven, Antwerpen.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 6 (1992).
    • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus: 1251 (1985).
    • Fl. Turkey 7 : 33, t. 117/8–10 (1982).
    • Fl. Iraq 4 : 651 (1980)
    • Fl. Europaea 3 : 123 (1972).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • O'Leary, N., Múlgura, M.E. & Morrone, O. (2010). Revisión taxonómica de las especies del género Verbena (Verbenaceae). II: serie Verbena Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 97: 365-424.
    • Nesom, G.L. (2010). A new species of Verbena (Verbenaceae) from Northeastern Mexico and an overview of the Verbena officinalis group Phytoneuron 2010-13: 1-13.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus: 1251 (1985).
    • Townsend in Fl. Turkey 7: 33, t. 117/8–10 (1982).
    • Townsend in Fl. Iraq 4: 651 (1980)
    • Franco in Fl. Europaea 3: 123 (1972).
    • Ross-Craig, Drawings Brit. Pl. 23, t. 38 (1966).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 286 (1900).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 20 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/