1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Lantana L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America, Africa to Thailand.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Erect, scandent or occasionally prostrate herbs or shrubs, with usually tomentose, scabrid-hairy or sparsely to densely prickly stems
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3(–4), mostly aromatic, usually toothed, often ± bullate or rugose, usually glandular-punctate
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile in often colourful, usually axillary, pedunculate heads or spike-like inflorescences, each flower subtended by an ovate to lanceolate usually acuminate bract
    Calyx
    Calyx small, membranous, truncate or sinuate-dentate
    Corolla
    Corolla red, yellow, purple, blue, mauve or white, sometimes bicoloured with throat yellow to orange, often changing colour after fertilisation, salver-shaped with narrowly cylindrical tube; limb obscurely 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed, the lobes obtuse or even emarginate
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted at middle of tube, included
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular with 1 basal erect ovule per locule; style short, with ± thick oblique or sublateral stigma
    Fruits
    Axis of fruiting spike with scars ± scattered, not close as in Lippia Drupes with ± fleshy mesocarp, rarely rather dry; endocarp hard, 2-locular or splitting into 2 1-locular pyrenes
    Seeds
    Seeds without albumen.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Stem
    Stems and branches tomentose, scabrid hairy, or sparsely to densely armed with prickles Stems and branches tomentose, scabrid hairy, or sparsely to densely armed with prickles.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually axillary, pedunculate, spicate; spikes densely cylindrical or subspherical; bracts small Inflorescences usually axillary, pedunculate, spicate; spikes densely cylindrical or subspherical; bracts small.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, each sessile in the axil of an ovate to lanceolate usually acuminate bract Flowers small, each sessile in the axil of an ovate to lanceolate usually acuminate bract.
    Calyx
    Calyx small, ± tubular and shorter than the corolla tube, truncate to entire or sinuate-dentate, membranous, whitish Calyx small, ± tubular and shorter than the corolla tube, truncate to entire or sinuate-dentate, membranous, whitish.
    Corolla
    Corolla small, hypocrateriform, red, yellow, purple, blue, mauve or white, sometimes bicoloured with the throat yellow to orange, often changing colour after fertilization; tube slender, cylindrical or enlarging above middle; limb spreading, obscurely 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed with lobes obtuse to emarginate Corolla small, hypocrateriform, red, yellow, purple, blue, mauve or white, sometimes bicoloured with the throat yellow to orange, often changing colour after fertilization; tube slender, cylindrical or enlarging above middle; limb spreading, obscurely 2-lipped, 4–5-lobed with lobes obtuse to emarginate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, included; filaments short, inserted ± at middle of corolla tube; anthers ovate, with parallel thecae Stamens 4, included; filaments short, inserted ± at middle of corolla tube; anthers ovate, with parallel thecae.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1-carpellate; carpel 2-locular; ovules 1 per locule, basal, erect or attached laterally near the base; style undivided with a somewhat thick, oblique or sublateral stigma
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm. Seeds without endosperm.
    Note
    Biegel, Check-list Ornam. Pl. Rhod. Parks & Gard. [Rhodesia Agric. J., Research Report No. 3]: 69 (1977), has recorded the following as cultivated garden ornamentals in Zimbabwe: Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (syn. L. sellowiana Link & Otto).  A slender, much branched trailing or procumbent subshrub with rosy-lilac or violet flowers in flattish spikes on peduncles much exceeding the leaves. Usually grown as a bedding plant or ground cover.  No specimens have been seen from the Flora Zambesiaca area.   Drap d’Or , a sterile cultivar of L. camara , with golden yellow flowers, grown in Zimbabwe gardens.  It has not become naturalized.  No specimens have been seen from the Flora Zambesiaca area. Species are notoriously difficult to determine because of the great variation exhibited, and hybridization is apparently very widespread.   See R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 125–214 (1989), for discussion of problematic taxa and also of misidentifications by Moldenke (who subsequently misidentified taxa he had previously described from single specimens at intervals).
    Distribution
    A genus of about 270 specific and infraspecific taxa (fide Moldenke ), mostly native to subtropical and tropical America, with a few in the Old World tropics.  Several species are widely cultivated as garden ornamentals and there are numerous culti
    Habit
    Shrubs, undershrubs or perennial herbs, usually erect, sometimes scandent, rarely procumbent. Shrubs, undershrubs or perennial herbs, usually erect, sometimes scandent, rarely procumbent
    Indumentum
    Indumentum usually of simple appressed or spreading hairs, gland-tipped hairs sometimes also present; young parts and leaf lower surface usually glandular-punctate. Indumentum usually of simple appressed or spreading hairs, gland-tipped hairs sometimes also present; young parts and leaf lower surface usually glandular-punctate
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3(4), usually decussate, simple, usually petiolate, mostly aromatic; lamina usually serrate or crenate, often ± bullate or rugose. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3(4), usually decussate, simple, usually petiolate, mostly aromatic; lamina usually serrate or crenate, often ± bullate or rugose
    Pistil
    Ovary 1-carpellate; carpel 2-locular; ovules 1 per locule, basal, erect or attached laterally near the base; style undivided with a somewhat thick, oblique or sublateral stigma.
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous; mesocarp ± fleshy, rarely rather dry; endocarp hard, 2-locular, not splitting into 2 pyrenes. Fruit drupaceous; mesocarp ± fleshy, rarely rather dry; endocarp hard, 2-locular, not splitting into 2 pyrenes

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Arkansas, Ascension, Baleares, Borneo, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Italy, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kriti, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Morocco, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Tonga, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Lantana L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 627 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 5: 275.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Atkins in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 461 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 461 (2004).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 37–47 (1992).
    • Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 37–47 (1992).
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 125–214 (1989).
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61: 125–214 (1989).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 275 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 626 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61: 125–214 (1989)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 275 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 626 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0