1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Lippia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Erect shrubs, subshrubs or perennial herbs, mostly pyrophytes from large woody rootstocks, pubescent or hairy; dioecious in species 11
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3–4, rarely alternate, entire or variously crenate, toothed or lobed, often scabrid above and rugose
    Flowers
    Flowers small, sessile in mostly pedunculate dense heads or spikes which sometimes elongate in fruit, 1–several heads per axil and sometimes forming terminal panicles but often in numerous lower axils; each flower supported by a bract; eventual bare rhachis with floral scars very closely placed
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate or compressed and laterally 2-keeled or 2-winged, undulate, truncate, 2–4-fid or 4-toothed
    Corolla
    Corolla white, greenish or creamy yellow, often darker at the throat, more rarely magenta; tube cylindric or funnel-shaped, straight or curved; limb ± 2-lipped, oblique, the anterior lip larger than the posterior
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the corolla-tube, included or slightly exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular, each locule with 1 ovule; style usually short with oblique or recurved stigma
    Fruits
    Fruit dry, surrounded by the adpressed calyx, separating into 2 pyrenes at maturity; pericarp papery or hard
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences spicate; spikes densely flowered, usually short and head-like in flower, often somewhat elongate and cylindric in fruit, 1–several per axil and sometimes forming terminal corymbs or panicles Inflorescences spicate; spikes densely flowered, usually short and head-like in flower, often somewhat elongate and cylindric in fruit, 1–several per axil and sometimes forming terminal corymbs or panicles.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular, each locule l-ovulate; style usually short, with an oblique or recurved stigma
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm. Seeds without endosperm.
    Distribution
    A genus of about 207 species of warmer regions, mainly of South and Central America but many also in Africa.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, sessile, solitary in the axils of bracts, usually 4-ranked. Flowers small, sessile, solitary in the axils of bracts, usually 4-ranked
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate or compressed and laterally 2-keeled or 2-winged, undulate, truncate, 2–4-fid or 4-dentate at the apex. Calyx campanulate or compressed and laterally 2-keeled or 2-winged, undulate, truncate, 2–4-fid or 4-dentate at the apex
    Corolla
    Corolla white, greenish or creamy-yellow, often darker at the throat, rarely magenta; corolla tube cylindric or funnel-shaped, straight or incurved; corolla limb weakly 2-lipped, oblique, with the anterior lip larger than the posterior one. Corolla white, greenish or creamy-yellow, often darker at the throat, rarely magenta; corolla tube cylindric or funnel-shaped, straight or incurved; corolla limb weakly 2-lipped, oblique, with the anterior lip larger than the posterior one
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the corolla tube, included or slightly exserted; anthers ovate, with parallel thecae. Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the corolla tube, included or slightly exserted; anthers ovate, with parallel thecae
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular, each locule l-ovulate; style usually short, with an oblique or recurved stigma.
    Fruits
    Fruit a dry schizocarp surrounded by the appressed calyx; mericarps 2, separating at maturity; pericarp papery or hard. Fruit a dry schizocarp surrounded by the appressed calyx; mericarps 2, separating at maturity; pericarp papery or hard
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, undershrubs or perennial herbs, mostly pyrophytes from large woody rootstocks, often aromatic, pubescent, hairy or setose. Erect shrubs, undershrubs or perennial herbs, mostly pyrophytes from large woody rootstocks, often aromatic, pubescent, hairy or setose
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4, rarely alternate, entire, crenate, serrate, dentate or lobed. Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3 or 4, rarely alternate, entire, crenate, serrate, dentate or lobed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Central American Pac, India, Portugal, Queensland

    Lippia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 633 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • O'Leary, N., Denham, S.., Salimena, F. & Múlgura, M.E. (2012). Species delimination in Lippia section Goniostachyum (Verbenaceae) using the phylogenetic species concept Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 170: 197-219.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 5: 278, partly.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Atkins in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 462 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII : 462 (2004).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 27–37 (1992).
    • Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 27–37 (1992).
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 59 : 245–272 (1987).
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 59: 245–272 (1987).
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 12, 13 (1965–1966) (numerous contributions).
    • Phytologia 12 , 13 (1965–1966) (numerous contributions).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 282 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 282 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 633 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 633 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 59: 245–272 (1987)
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 12, 13 (1965–1966) (numerous contributions)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 282 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 633 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0