1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Priva Adans.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Myanmar, Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Erect or ascending mostly almost subscabrid pubescent perennial herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or subopposite, simple, mostly ± toothed, sessile or petiolate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences raceme-like or subspicate, terminal or axillary; bracts small; flowers ± small, arranged in a spirally alternate or pseudo-secund manner on the mostly elongate rhachis
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 5-ribbed, with 4–5 mostly short equal or subequal teeth, persistent, enlarging and covering the fruit, usually contracted and ± beaked at the mouth
    Corolla
    Corolla white or coloured, ± irregular, funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube cylindric, straight or slightly curved, widened at the throat; limb ± 2-lipped, with 5 unequal lobes
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted near the middle of the tube, included; a minute staminode is sometimes present also
    Pistil
    Ovary 2(–4)-locular, with each locule 1–2-ovuled; style terminal, filiform, 2-lobed at apex with a longer curved or erect stigmatiferous lobe and a very minute tooth-like lobe; ovules basal, erect, anatropous
    Fruits
    Fruit eventually splitting into 2 1–2-locular subglobose cocci; pericarp hard, the dorsal surface echinate, scrobiculate or ridged, the inner excavated, flat or concave
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    Perennial herbs with woody rootstocks, rarely with tuberous roots
    Stem
    Stem and branches 4-angled Stem and branches 4-angled.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-carpellate, each carpel 2-locular, each locule 1-ovulate; ovules anatropous, erect, attached laterally at or near the base; style terminal, filiform, subequalling the lower stamens, 2-lobed at the apex with a short, stigmatic anterior lobe and an acute horny sterile posterior tooth
    Fruits
    Fruit a schizocarp included within a persistent inflated calyx, separating at maturity into 2 bilocular mericarps (or mericarps 1-locular by abortion); mericarps with a dry and hard pericarp, linear or oblong, flat concave or deeply excavate on the commissural face, raised-reticulate or ribbed on the lateral faces, echinate or ridged on the dorsal face rarely smooth, glabrous, puberulous or shortly pubescent Fruit a schizocarp included within a persistent inflated calyx, separating at maturity into 2 bilocular mericarps (or mericarps 1-locular by abortion); mericarps with a dry and hard pericarp, linear or oblong, flat concave or deeply excavate on the commissural face, raised-reticulate or ribbed on the lateral faces, echinate or ridged on the dorsal face rarely smooth, glabrous, puberulous or shortly pubescent.
    Distribution
    A genus of about 20 species in tropical and subtropical America (Florida and Texas to Paraguay and West Indies), Asia (Arabia, India, Sri Lanka, etc.) and Africa.   The c. 10 species occurring in Africa all belong to sect. Priva .
    Habit
    Perennial herbs with woody rootstocks, rarely with tuberous roots.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or subopposite, usually decussate, simple, petiolate or sessile, crenate-serrate or serrate, sometimes laciniate or lobed at the base. Leaves opposite or subopposite, usually decussate, simple, petiolate or sessile, crenate-serrate or serrate, sometimes laciniate or lobed at the base
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually of terminal or axillary spike-like racemes; bracts small. Inflorescences usually of terminal or axillary spike-like racemes; bracts small
    Flowers
    Flowers small, shortly pedicellate, spirally alternate or pseudo-secund on the mostly elongate rhachis, each solitary in the axil of a narrow bract. Flowers small, shortly pedicellate, spirally alternate or pseudo-secund on the mostly elongate rhachis, each solitary in the axil of a narrow bract
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 5-ribbed and slightly 5-plicate at anthesis, shortly and subequally 5-dentate or subtruncate and 5-denticulate at the apex, membranous, usually covered with hooked hairs intermixed with setae, becoming inflated about the fruit and ± narrowed and beaked at the mouth. Calyx tubular, 5-ribbed and slightly 5-plicate at anthesis, shortly and subequally 5-dentate or subtruncate and 5-denticulate at the apex, membranous, usually covered with hooked hairs intermixed with setae, becoming inflated about the fruit and ± narrowed and beaked at the mouth
    Corolla
    Corolla hypocrateriform or funnel-shaped, usually white or sometimes blue, rose, red or purple; tube longer than the calyx, cylindric, straight or slightly curved, widened at the throat; limb oblique, c. 2-lipped, with the abaxial lip 3-lobed and the adaxial lip 2-lobed. Corolla hypocrateriform or funnel-shaped, usually white or sometimes blue, rose, red or purple; tube longer than the calyx, cylindric, straight or slightly curved, widened at the throat; limb oblique, c. 2-lipped, with the abaxial lip 3-lobed and the adaxial lip 2-lobed
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, included; filaments inserted about or above the middle of the corolla tube; anthers ovate or oblong, dorsifixed. Stamens 4, included; filaments inserted about or above the middle of the corolla tube; anthers ovate or oblong, dorsifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-carpellate, each carpel 2-locular, each locule 1-ovulate; ovules anatropous, erect, attached laterally at or near the base; style terminal, filiform, subequalling the lower stamens, 2-lobed at the apex with a short, stigmatic anterior lobe and an acute horny sterile posterior tooth.
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm; cotyledons oblong, somewhat thick. Seeds without endosperm; cotyledons oblong, somewhat thick.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Socotra, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Galápagos, Gulf of Guinea Is.

    Priva Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Gibert [62], Brazil K000944115

    First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 505 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Moldenke in Fedde Rep. 41: 1—76 (1936).
    • —F.T.A. 5: 285
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Atkins in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 464 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII : 464 (2004).
    • Bot. Helvetica 95 , 1: 33–45 (1985).
    • R. Fernandes in Bot. Helvetica 95, 1: 33–45 (1985).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 41 : 1–76 (1936).
    • Moldenke in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 41: 1–76 (1936).
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 505 (1763).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Bot. Helv. 95: 33–45 (1985)
    • Moldenke in F.R. 41: 1–76 (1936)
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 505 (1763)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0